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Table Of Contents

1 INTRODUCTION
2.1.1.1 Western
2.1.1.2 Eastern
2.1.2 Broad and narrow conceptions of poetry
2.1.3.1 Ambiguity
2.1.3.2 Translation
2.1.4.1 Prosody
2.1.4.2 Structure
2.2.1 The word as symbol
2.2.2 Themes and their sources
2.2.3 The writer's personal involvement
2.2.4.1 Style
2.2.4.2 Objective-subjective expression
2.3.1 Folk and elite literatures
2.3.2 Modern popular literature
2.4.1 Social and economic conditions
2.4.2 National and group literature
2.4.3 The writer's position in society
2.4.4 Literature and the other arts
2.5.1 Epic
2.5.2 Lyric poetry
2.5.3 Satire
2.5.4 Prose fiction
2.5.5 Drama
2.5.6 Future developments
2.6.1 Scholarly research
2.6.2 Literary criticism
3.1.1 ATTEMPTS TO DEFINE POETRY
3.1.2.1 Major differences
3.1.2.2 Poetic diction and experience
3.1.3 FORM IN POETRY
3.1.4 POETRY AS A MODE OF THOUGHT: THE PROTEAN ENCOUNTER
3.2.1.1 Scansion
3.2.1.2 Meaning, pace, and sound
3.2.1.3.1 Syllable-stress metres
3.2.1.3.2 Strong-stress metres
3.2.1.3.3 Syllabic metres
3.2.1.3.4 Quantitative metres
3.2.2.1 The personal element
3.2.2.2 Influence of period and genre
3.2.3.1 The Middle Ages
3.2.3.2 The Renaissance
3.2.3.3 The 18th century
3.2.3.4 The 19th century
3.2.3.5 The 20th century
3.2.3.6 Non-Western theories
4.1.1.1 Uses of the epic
4.1.1.2 Verbal formulas
4.1.2 BASES
4.1.3.1 In the ancient Middle East
4.1.3.2.1 Eastern influences
4.1.3.2.2 The heroic life
4.1.4.1 The Latin epic
4.1.4.2 Germanic epics
4.1.4.3 Chansons de geste
4.1.4.4 Arthurian Romance
4.1.4.5 The epic in Japan
4.1.4.6 The later written epic
4.2.1.1 Allegory and myth
4.2.1.2.1 Fable
4.2.1.2.2 Parable
4.2.1.3 Derivation of the terms
4.2.1.4.1 Fable
4.2.1.4.2 Parable
4.2.1.5 Allegory
4.2.1.6 Diversity of forms
4.2.1.7 Diversity of media
4.2.1.8 Allegory and cosmology
4.2.2.1.1 Beast epic
4.2.2.1.2 Influence of Jean de La Fontaine
4.2.2.2 Parable
4.2.2.3.1 Old Testament
4.2.2.3.2 The Greeks
4.2.2.3.3 Blending of rival systems: the Middle Ages
4.2.2.3.4 Renaissance
4.2.2.3.5 Modern period
4.2.3.1 India
4.2.3.2 China
4.2.3.3 Japan
4.3.1.1 Narrative basis
4.3.1.2 Oral transmission
4.3.2.1 Theories
4.3.2.2 Technique and form
4.3.2.3 Music
4.3.3.1 Minstrel ballad
4.3.3.2 Broadside ballad
4.3.3.3 Literary ballads
4.3.4.1 The supernatural
4.3.4.2 Romantic tragedies
4.3.4.3 Romantic comedies
4.3.4.4 Crime
4.3.4.5 Medieval romance
4.3.4.6 Historical ballads
4.3.4.7 Disaster
4.3.4.8 Outlaws and badmen
4.3.4.9 Occupational ballads
4.3.5 CHRONOLOGY
4.4.1.1 Style and subject matter
4.4.1.2 Developing psychological awareness
4.4.1.3 Sources and parallels
4.4.1.4 The marvellous
4.4.1.5 The setting
4.4.2.1.1 The matter of Britain
4.4.2.1.2 Chrétien de Troyes
4.4.2.2.1 The Tristan story
4.4.2.2.2 The theme of separation and reunion
4.4.3.1 Arthurian themes
4.4.3.2 Structure
4.4.4.1 The spread and popularity of romance literature
4.4.4.2 The decline of romance
4.4.4.3 The 18th-century romantic revival
4.5.1.1 Translations
4.5.1.2 Native historical accounts
4.5.2.1 Kings' sagas
4.5.2.2 Legendary sagas
4.5.2.3 Sagas of Icelanders
4.6.1.1 Plot
4.6.1.2 Character
4.6.1.3 Scene, or setting
4.6.1.4 Narrative method and point of view
4.6.1.5 Scope, or dimension
4.6.2.1 Interpretation of life
4.6.2.2 Entertainment or escape
4.6.2.3 Propaganda
4.6.2.4 Reportage
4.6.2.5 Agent of change in language and thought
4.6.2.6 Expression of the spirit of its age
4.6.2.7 Creator of life-style and arbiter of taste
4.6.3.1 Romanticism
4.6.3.2 Realism
4.6.3.3 Naturalism
4.6.3.4 Impressionism
4.6.3.5 Expressionism
4.6.3.6 Avant-gardism
4.6.4.1 Historical
4.6.4.2 Picaresque
4.6.4.3 Sentimental
4.6.4.4 Gothic
4.6.4.5 Psychological
4.6.4.6 The novel of manners
4.6.4.7 Epistolary
4.6.4.8 Pastoral
4.6.4.9 Apprenticeship
4.6.4.10 Roman à clef
4.6.4.11 Anti-novel
4.6.4.12 Cult, or coterie, novels
4.6.4.13 Detective, mystery, thriller
4.6.4.14 Western
4.6.4.15 The best-seller
4.6.4.16 Fantasy and prophecy
4.6.4.17 Proletarian
4.6.4.18 Other types
4.6.5.1.1 Romantic and Victorian novels
4.6.5.1.2 The modern novel
4.6.5.1.3 Irish and Scottish novels
4.6.5.2 The United States
4.6.5.3 The British Commonwealth
4.6.6.1 Russian
4.6.6.2 German
4.6.6.3 French
4.6.6.4 Spanish
4.6.6.5 Italian
4.6.6.6 Scandinavian languages
4.6.6.7 Slavic and East European languages
4.6.6.8 The Jewish novel
4.6.7.1 China
4.6.7.2 Japan
4.6.7.3 India and East Asia
4.6.7.4 Africa
4.6.7.5 Latin America
4.6.8 SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS
4.6.9 EVALUATION AND STUDY
4.6.10 THE FUTURE OF THE NOVEL
4.7.1 ANALYSIS OF THE GENRE
4.7.2.1.1 From Egypt to India
4.7.2.1.2 The Greeks
4.7.2.2.1 Proliferation of forms
4.7.2.2.2 Refinement
4.7.2.2.3 Spreading popularity
4.7.2.3 Decline of short fiction
4.7.2.4.1 The 19th century
4.7.2.4.2 The "impressionist" story
4.7.2.4.3 Respect for the story
4.7.2.4.4 French writers
4.7.2.4.5 Russian writers
4.7.3 THE 20TH CENTURY
5.1.1.1 Common elements of drama
5.1.1.2 Dramatic expression
5.1.1.3 Dramatic structure
5.1.2.1 East-West differences
5.1.2.2.1 Greek origins
5.1.2.2.2 Biblical plays
5.1.2.2.3 Into the 16th and 17th centuries
5.1.2.3 Drama in Eastern cultures
5.1.2.4 Drama and communal belief
5.1.3.1.1 Western theory
5.1.3.1.2 Eastern theory
5.1.3.2 The role of music and dance
5.1.3.3.1 The arena stage
5.1.3.3.2 The open stage
5.1.3.3.3 The proscenium stage
5.1.3.4 Audience expectations
5.1.4 THE RANGE OF DRAMATIC FORMS AND STYLES
5.2.1.1 The human contradiction
5.2.1.2 Comedy, satire, and romance
5.2.2.1 Comedy as a rite
5.2.2.2 The moral force of comedy
5.2.2.3 Comedy and character
5.2.2.4 The role of wit
5.2.2.5 Baudelaire on the grotesque
5.2.2.6 Bergson's and Meredith's theories
5.2.2.7 The comic as a failure of self-knowledge
5.2.2.8 Divine comedies in the West and East
5.2.3.1 Old and New Comedy in ancient Greece
5.2.3.2 Rise of realistic comedy in 17th-century England
5.2.3.3 Sentimental comedy of the 17th and 18th centuries
5.2.3.4 The comic outside the theatre
5.2.3.5 20th-century tragicomedy
5.2.3.6 The absurd
5.2.4.1 The visual arts
5.2.4.2 Music
5.2.4.3 Television and cinema
5.3.1.1.1 Aeschylus: the first great tragedian
5.3.1.1.2 Sophocles
5.3.1.1.3 Euripides
5.3.1.1.4 Later Greek drama
5.3.1.2 The long hiatus
5.3.1.3.1 Marlowe
5.3.1.3.2 Shakespearean
5.3.1.3.3 From comedy to tragedy
5.3.1.3.4 Shakespeare's tragic art
5.3.1.3.5 Decline in 17th-century England
5.3.1.4.1 Corneille and Racine
5.3.1.4.2 The English "heroic play."
5.3.1.4.3 The eclipse of tragedy
5.3.1.5.1 Dostoyevsky's
5.3.1.5.2 The American tragic novel
5.3.2.1 Tragic themes in Ibsen, Strindberg, and Chekhov
5.3.2.2 American tragic dramatists
5.3.2.3 Other serious drama
5.3.2.4 Absence of tragedy in Oriental drama
5.3.2.5 Loss of viability in the West
5.3.3.1 Classical theories
5.3.3.2 Elizabethan approaches
5.3.3.3 Neoclassical theory
5.3.3.4.1 Coleridge
5.3.3.4.2 Schlegel
5.3.3.4.3 Hegel
5.3.3.4.4 Schopenhauer and Nietzsche
5.3.3.4.5 Tragedy in music
5.3.3.5 20th-century critical theory
6.1.1.1 Historical definitions
6.1.1.2 Influence of Horace and Juvenal
6.1.1.3 Structure of verse satire
6.1.1.4 The satiric spirit
6.1.2.1 Literature
6.1.2.2 Drama
6.1.2.3 Motion pictures and television
6.1.2.4 Festivals
6.1.2.5 Visual arts
6.1.3 THE SATIRIST, THE LAW, AND SOCIETY
6.2.1 NATURE
6.2.2.1 Reality and imagination
6.2.2.2 Style
6.2.2.3 Author presence
6.2.3.1 The descriptive mode
6.2.3.2 Narrative
6.2.3.3 Expository and argumentative modes
6.2.4.1 Modern origins
6.2.4.2.1 Journalism
6.2.4.2.2 Entertainment
6.2.4.2.3 Philosophy and politics
6.2.5 HISTORY
6.2.6.1 Philosophers and thinkers
6.2.6.2 Russian essayists
6.2.6.3 American and French writers
6.2.6.4 Theological writers
6.2.7.1 Changing interpretations
6.2.7.2 Modern times
6.2.8.1 Reportage
6.2.8.2 Aphorisms and sketches
6.2.8.3 Dialogues
6.2.8.4 Travel and epistolary literature
6.2.8.5 Personal literature
6.3.1.1 Historical
6.3.2.3.2 Memoirs
6.3.2.4 Formal autobiography
6.3.3.1.1 Antiquity
6.3.3.1.2 Middle Ages
6.3.3.1.3 Renaissance
6.3.3.1.4 17th and 18th centuries
6.3.3.1.5 19th century
6.3.3.1.6 20th century
6.3.3.2 Other literatures
6.3.4 BIOGRAPHICAL LITERATURE TODAY
6.4.1 FUNCTIONS
6.4.2.1 Antiquity
6.4.2.2 Medieval period
6.4.2.3 The Renaissance
6.4.2.4 Neoclassicism and its decline
6.4.2.5 Romanticism
6.4.2.6 The late 19th century
6.4.3.1 The influence of science
6.4.3.2 Criticism and knowledge
7.1.1 "Children."
7.1.2 "Literature."
7.2 THE CASE FOR A CHILDREN'S LITERATURE
7.5.1.1 Overview
7.5.1.2 Prehistory (early Middle Ages to 1712)
7.5.1.3 From "T.W." to "Alice" (1712?-1865)
7.5.1.4 Coming of age (1865-1945)
7.5.1.5 Contemporary times
7.5.1.6 Historical fiction
7.5.3.1 Heritage and fairy tales
7.5.3.2 War and beyond
7.5.4.1 Sweden
7.5.4.2 National and modern literature
7.5.4.3 Norway
7.5.4.4 Denmark
7.5.4.5 Finland
7.5.5.1 Overview
8.13 Parable:
8.14 Allegory:
8.15 (Pagan and Christian interpretation):
8.16 (Typology and typological symbolism):
8.17 (Medieval allegory):
8.18 (Renaissance and modern allegory):
8.19 Ballad
8.20 Romance
8.21 Saga
8.22 Novel
8.23 Short story
8.24 Dramatic literature
8.25 Comedy
8.26 Tragedy
8.27 Satire
8.28 Other genres
8.29 Biography
8.30 Anthologies:
8.31 Literary criticism
8.32 Children's literature
8.33 General:
8.34 Bibliographic:
8.35 Biographical:
8.36 Illustration:
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P. 1
The Art of Literature

The Art of Literature

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Published by Tadesse Dame

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Published by: Tadesse Dame on Nov 30, 2010
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