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MB0050 Research Methodology Fall 10

MB0050 Research Methodology Fall 10

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MB 0050
 Name: Rajesh Kumar Roll number: 520932980Learning centre: 03036Subject: MB 0050-
Assignment No.: Set 1Date of submission at learning centre:
MB0050-Research Methodology
ASSIGNMENTSSubject code: MB0050(4 credits)Marks 60SUBJECT NAME: RESEARCH METHODOLOGYNote: Each Question carries 10 marksQ1. Give examples of specific situations that would call for the following types of research, explaining why a) Exploratory research b) Descriptive research c)Diagnostic research d) Evaluation research.Ans: a) Exploratory research-
It is also known as formulative research. It is preliminarystudy of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge. It is ill-structured and much less focused on pre-determined objectives. It usually takes the form of a pilot study. The purpose of this research may be to generate new ideas, or to increase theresearcher’s familiarity with the problem or to make a precise formulation of the problem or to gather information for clarifying concepts or to determine whether it is feasible to attemptthe study. Katz conceptualizes two levels of exploratory studies. “At the first level is thediscovery of the significant variable in the situations; at the second, the discovery of relationships between variables.”It is a type of researchconducted for a problem that has not been clearly defined. Exploratoryresearch helps determine the bestresearchdesign,data collectionmethod and selection of  subjects. It should draw definitive conclusions only with extreme caution. Given itsfundamental nature, exploratory research often concludes that a perceived problem does notactually exist.Exploratory research often relies onsecondary researchsuch as reviewing available literatureand/or data, or qualitative approaches such as informal discussions with consumers,employees, management or competitors, and more formal approaches through in-depthinterviews,focus groups, projective methods,case studiesor  pilot studies. TheInternet  allows for research methods that are more interactive in nature. For example,RSSfeedsefficiently supply researchers with up-to-date information; major search enginesearch resultsmay be sent byemailto researchers by services such asGoogle Alerts; comprehensive search results are tracked over lengthy periods of time by services such asGoogle Trends; andwebsitesmay be created to attract worldwide feedback on any subject.The results of exploratory research are not usually useful for decision-making by themselves, but they can provide significant insight into a given situation. Although the results of qualitative researchcan give some indication as to the "why", "how" and "when" somethingoccurs, it cannot tell us "how often" or "how many".Exploratory research is not typically generalizable to thepopulationat large.
MB0050-Research Methodology
b) Descriptive research-
It is a fact-finding investigation with adequate interpretation. It isthe simplest type of research. It is more specific than an exploratory research. It aims atidentifying the various characteristics of a community or institution or problem under studyand also aims at a classification of the range of elements comprising the subject matter of study. It contributes to the development of a young science and useful in verifying focalconcepts through empirical observation. It can highlight important methodological aspects of data collection and interpretation. The information obtained may be useful for predictionabout areas of social life outside the boundaries of the research. They are valuable in providing facts needed for planning social action program.It also known as
, describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. Descriptive research answers the questions
...Although the data description is factual, accurate and systematic, the research cannot describewhat caused a situation. Thus, Descriptive research cannot be used to create a
, where one variable affects another. In other words, descriptive research can besaid to have a low requirement for internal validity.The description is used for frequencies, averagesand other statistical calculations. Often the  best approach, prior to writing descriptive research, is to conduct a survey investigation.Qualitative researchoften has the aim of 
and researchers may follow-up withexaminations of why the observations exist and what the implications of the findings are.In short
descriptive research
deals with everything that can be counted and studied. Butthere are always restrictions to that. Your research must have an impact to the lives of the people around you. For example, finding the most frequent disease that affects the children of a town. The reader of the research will know what to do to prevent that disease thus, more people will live a healthy life.
c) Diagnostic research-
It is similar to descriptive study but with a different focus. It isdirected towards discovering what is happening, why it is happening and what can be doneabout. It aims at identifying the causes of a problem and the possible solutions for it. It mayalso be concerned with discovering and testing whether certain variables are associated. Thistype of research requires prior knowledge of the problem, its thorough formulation, clear-cutdefinition of the given population, adequate methods for collecting accurate information, precise measurement of variables, statistical analysis and test of significance.
d) Evaluation research-
It is a type of applied research. It is made for assessing theeffectiveness of social or economic programmes implemented or for assessing the impact of developmental projects on the development of the project area. It is thus directed to assess or appraise the quality and quantity of an activity and its performance, and to specify itsattributes and conditions required for its success. It is concerned with causal relationships andis more actively guided by hypothesis. It is concerned also with change over time.
Q2.In the context of hypothesis testing, briefly explain the difference between a) Nulland alternative hypothesis b) Type 1 and type 2 errors c) Two tailed and one tailed testd) Parametric and non parametric tests.

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