b) Descriptive research-
It is a fact-finding investigation with adequate interpretation. It isthe simplest type of research. It is more specific than an exploratory research. It aims atidentifying the various characteristics of a community or institution or problem under studyand also aims at a classification of the range of elements comprising the subject matter of study. It contributes to the development of a young science and useful in verifying focalconcepts through empirical observation. It can highlight important methodological aspects of data collection and interpretation. The information obtained may be useful for predictionabout areas of social life outside the boundaries of the research. They are valuable in providing facts needed for planning social action program.It also known as
, describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. Descriptive research answers the questions
...Although the data description is factual, accurate and systematic, the research cannot describewhat caused a situation. Thus, Descriptive research cannot be used to create a
, where one variable affects another. In other words, descriptive research can besaid to have a low requirement for internal validity.The description is used for frequencies, averagesand other statistical calculations. Often the
best approach, prior to writing descriptive research, is to conduct a survey investigation.Qualitative researchoften has the aim of
and researchers may follow-up withexaminations of why the observations exist and what the implications of the findings are.In short
deals with everything that can be counted and studied. Butthere are always restrictions to that. Your research must have an impact to the lives of the people around you. For example, finding the most frequent disease that affects the children of a town. The reader of the research will know what to do to prevent that disease thus, more people will live a healthy life.
c) Diagnostic research-
It is similar to descriptive study but with a different focus. It isdirected towards discovering what is happening, why it is happening and what can be doneabout. It aims at identifying the causes of a problem and the possible solutions for it. It mayalso be concerned with discovering and testing whether certain variables are associated. Thistype of research requires prior knowledge of the problem, its thorough formulation, clear-cutdefinition of the given population, adequate methods for collecting accurate information, precise measurement of variables, statistical analysis and test of significance.
d) Evaluation research-
It is a type of applied research. It is made for assessing theeffectiveness of social or economic programmes implemented or for assessing the impact of developmental projects on the development of the project area. It is thus directed to assess or appraise the quality and quantity of an activity and its performance, and to specify itsattributes and conditions required for its success. It is concerned with causal relationships andis more actively guided by hypothesis. It is concerned also with change over time.
Q2.In the context of hypothesis testing, briefly explain the difference between a) Nulland alternative hypothesis b) Type 1 and type 2 errors c) Two tailed and one tailed testd) Parametric and non parametric tests.