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DNS - Domain Name System

DNS - Domain Name System

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Published by Peter R. Egli
Overview of the Domain Name System (DNS).

In the early days of the Internet, hosts had a fixed IP address.
Reaching a host required to know its numeric IP address.
With the growing number of hosts this scheme became quickly awkward and difficult to use.
DNS was introduced to give hosts human readable names that would be translated into a numeric IP addresses on the fly when a requesting host tried to reach another host.
To facilitate a distributed administration of the domain names, a hierarchic scheme was introduced where responsibility to manage domain names is delegated to organizations which can further delegate management of sub-domains.
Due to its importance in the operation of the Internet, domain name servers are usually operated redundantly. The databases of both servers are periodically synchronized.
Overview of the Domain Name System (DNS).

In the early days of the Internet, hosts had a fixed IP address.
Reaching a host required to know its numeric IP address.
With the growing number of hosts this scheme became quickly awkward and difficult to use.
DNS was introduced to give hosts human readable names that would be translated into a numeric IP addresses on the fly when a requesting host tried to reach another host.
To facilitate a distributed administration of the domain names, a hierarchic scheme was introduced where responsibility to manage domain names is delegated to organizations which can further delegate management of sub-domains.
Due to its importance in the operation of the Internet, domain name servers are usually operated redundantly. The databases of both servers are periodically synchronized.

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Categories:Presentations
Published by: Peter R. Egli on Nov 30, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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04/02/2014

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© Peter R. Egli 2014 1/16 Rev. 3.40
DNS - Domain Name System
 
© Peter R. Egli 2014 2/16 Rev. 3.40
DNS - Domain Name System
 
indigoo.com
1. Purpose of DNS (RFC1034/RFC1035)
Before
“ DNS:
 
Symbolic names to IP address mappings were stored in the file “hosts” on each computer/host. This “solution” did not scale well (update hosts file on each host every time
 a new host joins the network).
This file still exists (contains static mappings, e.g. “
localhost
” to 127.0.0.1):
 Windows: C:\Windows\system32\drivers\etc\hosts Unix: /etc/hosts DNS purpose: DNS provides a mapping between symbolic names to IP addresses in a worldwide distributed and hierarchic database. DNS characteristics:
DNS is a distributed system (many servers cooperating, worldwide).
Hierarchy / Delegation (if one server does not know the binding, it goes up the hierarchy).
DNS is case insensitive (WWW.INDIGOO.ch is the same as www.indigoo.ch).
 
© Peter R. Egli 2014 3/16 Rev. 3.40
DNS - Domain Name System
 
indigoo.com
2. DNS elements
Every organisation running DNS must operate 2 DNS servers (redundancy). Like HTTP pages, DNS records can be cached (in the client or in DNS servers). The lifetime of a record is contolled by the DNS TTL (Time-To-Live).
Resolver DNS client Application Host Zone Transfer
Provider Access / Corporate network Internet
DNS Query DNS Response DNS Server Secondary DNS Server Primary DNS Server DB Cache DB DB DNS Cache DNS Server DNS Query DNS Response Windows: ipconfig /flushdns ipconfig /displaydns The primary server transfers the entire set of DNS records (mapping name to IP) in a zone transfer. Both the primary and secondary (and ternary if available) DNS server deliver authoritative records.

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