hearing, without a job analysis on which to base selection practices, an employer"is aiming in the dark and can only hope to achieve job-relatedness by blindluck."In the 1990s, the need for firms to base selection criteria on job analysisinformation became even more important due to the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act. This law states that employment decisions concerningdisabled candidates must be based on their ability to perform the essentialfunctions of the job. For instance, if report reading were an essential job function,then applicants whose disabilities prevented them from reading could be lawfully denied employment (assuming there was no way to accommodate them). If,however, report reading were not an essential function, the inability to read couldnot lawfully serve as a basis for denial. The determination of which job functionsare essential is made during a job analysis.
DEVELOPING TRAINING AND APPRAISAL PROGRAMS
Firms can also use job analysis information to assess training needs and todevelop and evaluate training programs. Job analyses can identify tasks a workermust perform. Then, through the performance appraisal process, supervisors canidentify which tasks are being performed properly or improperly. The supervisorcan next determine whether improperly performed work can be correctedthrough training.HR professionals also use job analysis information to develop relevant trainingprograms. The job analysis specifies how each job is performed, step by step,allowing HR professionals to develop training materials to teach trainees how toperform each task. To evaluate the effectiveness of a training program, theorganization must first specify training objectives or the level of performanceexpected of trainees when they finish the program. The success of a trainingprogram is judged on the basis of the extent to which those performance levels