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DSP_class Notes

DSP_class Notes

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Published by Nikhil Pathak

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Published by: Nikhil Pathak on Dec 01, 2010
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DSP2008.doc 1
Introduction to DSP:
Text Books : (P) = Proakis , (M) = Mitra (I) = Iffeachor.(previous reference continues to apply unless change is indicated)
Signals: (p)
speech, biomedical, music, video, radar,DSP concerned with digital representation of signals, and use of digital processors toanalyse, modify, and extract information.Signal converted to digital and then processed then reconverted.
Advantages:
 
Guaranteed accuracy: no. of bits
 
Perfect reproducibility: no equipment dependence, tolerances etc.
 
No drift in performance with age, temp,
 
With CMOS, reliability, small size, low cost, low power and high speed
 
Flexibility: a given system can be reprogrammed, with same hardware
 
Superior, near ideal performance: i.e. linearity, adaptive filtering etc
 
Storage: digital storage media can be used
Applications:
 
Image processing: pattern recognition, enhancement,
 
Control and Instrumentation: spectral analysis, noise reduction, and datacompression
 
Speech: recognition and synthesis, text to speech, equalisation
 
Military: secure communication, radar and sonar, guidance systems.
 
Communications: echo suppression, adaptive equalisation, spread spectrum,
 
Bio-medical: EEG-ECG analysis, scanners, X-ray storage, and enhancement
Classification of Signals: (P,M)Multichannel and Multidimensional
Signal is a function of one or more variables. It can be real valued, complex valued ora vector
 
A sin 3
π
t is real valued
 
Ae
 j3
π
t
is complex valuedVector signals are generated by multiple sources. E.g. 3 lead ECG, RGB, and aremultichannel signals.The variable may be 1-dimensional e.g. t
 
DSP2008.doc 2
A picture signal (B&W) is 2-dimensional as it is a function of x and yColour TV is 3 channel 3 dimensional e.g. (x,y,t),
Continuous Time and Discrete Time Signals: (P,M)
 
Continuous time signals are defined for all value of time i.e. speech
 
Discrete time signals defined at specific instances of time x[n]Continuous time signals may be
 
analog if all values are allowed, or
 
Quantized Boxcar signals if specific values are allowed.Discrete time signals may be
 
digital (specific values) or
 
sampled (any value)
Deterministic and Random Signals: (P,M)
 
If an expression or a table can define a signal model then it is deterministic.The past present and future values can be known without uncertainty.
 
If the signal cannot be described to any reasonable degree of accuracy by anexpression, then it is random.
Concept of Frequency in Continuous and Discrete Time Signals: (P)Periodic Analog signal:
A periodic analog signal satisfies
)()(
 x x
aa
+=
where T is the repetition periode.g.
 A x
a
π θ 
2),2cos()(
=+=
uses
as frequency in radians /sec,
isfrequency in Hz.Here
can be increased without limit, and can also be 0, and all resulting signals aredistinct. Increasing F results in increase in the rate of oscillation.
Periodic Discrete Time signal:
The corresponding Discrete Time sinusoid would be
)cos()(
θ ω 
+=
n An x
where
n
is aninteger called sample number.
ω 
is the freq. in radians /sample,
 f 
π ω 
2
=
and
 f 
hasdimensions of cycles/sample.It is periodic with a period
 N 
if and only if 
)()(
n x N n x
=+
for all
n
.Smallest value of 
 N 
is the Fundamental period.For a periodic discrete time sinusoid
))(2cos()2cos(
00
n f n f 
+=
π π 
 Thus
 
DSP2008.doc 3
π π 
 N  f 
22
0
=
, where k is an integer, or
 N  f 
=
0
and must be a rational number.
Aliasing of Discrete Time Signals:
Discrete time sinusoids whose frequencies are separated by integer multiples of 
π 
2
 are identical. For example,If 
π ω ω 
2
0
+=
then
)cos(
0
nw
and
)cos(
n
ω 
are indistinguishable.However sinusoids in range
π ω π 
or
2121
are always distinct.Signals with
π ω 
>
are called aliases of some corresponding sinusoid with
π ω 
<
 
Fundamental Frequency Range:
The highest rate of oscillation is when
π ω 
=
or
π 
or
21
=
 f 
or
21
 The frequency range
π ω 
20
or
    
2121,10
 f w
π π 
is the calledthe fundamental range.
Representation as Complex Exponentials:
Continuous time exponential components can be used to represent a given periodicsignal, i.e. Fourier series.The discrete time complex exponential is periodic if its relative frequency is arational number. We may choose
 N  f 
1
0
=
and define
n f  j
ens
0
2
)(
π 
=
, with
2,1,0
±±=
etc.In this case however
)()()(
2)(2
nsnseens
 N  j N n j  N 
===
++
π π 
and there are only
 N 
 distinct complex exponentials in the set.Hence
=
=
10 / 2
)(
 N  N n j
ecn x
π 
is a periodic signal with fundamental period
 N 
 
Sampling: (P)
Consider uniform sampling of an analogue signal
)()(
nT  xn x
a
=
where
is samplingperiod, and
s
1
=
the sampling frequency.Since
s
nnT 
==
the analogue sinusoid can be written as
)2cos()(
θ π 
+=
Ft  A x
a
 thus
    
+=+==
θ π θ π 
sa
n AFnT  An xnT  x
2cos)2cos()()(
 Comparing with the discrete time sinusoid expression
+∞−∞=
=
 jk a
ec x
0
)(

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MSU Notes :D :D :D Yay! I have a shoddy old hardcopy (yellowed pages) which was passed down to me by my senior. Read the document name, googled it and found it here!
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