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DSP_class NotesRatings: (0)|Views: 1,655|Likes: 6

Published by Nikhil Pathak

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/44451727/DSP-class-Notes

03/01/2015

text

original

DSP2008.doc 1

Introduction to DSP:

Text Books : (P) = Proakis , (M) = Mitra (I) = Iffeachor.(previous reference continues to apply unless change is indicated)

Signals: (p)

speech, biomedical, music, video, radar,DSP concerned with digital representation of signals, and use of digital processors toanalyse, modify, and extract information.Signal converted to digital and then processed then reconverted.

Advantages:

•

Guaranteed accuracy: no. of bits

•

Perfect reproducibility: no equipment dependence, tolerances etc.

•

No drift in performance with age, temp,

•

With CMOS, reliability, small size, low cost, low power and high speed

•

Flexibility: a given system can be reprogrammed, with same hardware

•

Superior, near ideal performance: i.e. linearity, adaptive filtering etc

•

Storage: digital storage media can be used

Applications:

•

Image processing: pattern recognition, enhancement,

•

Control and Instrumentation: spectral analysis, noise reduction, and datacompression

•

Speech: recognition and synthesis, text to speech, equalisation

•

Military: secure communication, radar and sonar, guidance systems.

•

Communications: echo suppression, adaptive equalisation, spread spectrum,

•

Bio-medical: EEG-ECG analysis, scanners, X-ray storage, and enhancement

Classification of Signals: (P,M)Multichannel and Multidimensional

Signal is a function of one or more variables. It can be real valued, complex valued ora vector

•

A sin 3

π

t is real valued

•

Ae

j3

π

t

is complex valuedVector signals are generated by multiple sources. E.g. 3 lead ECG, RGB, and aremultichannel signals.The variable may be 1-dimensional e.g. t

DSP2008.doc 2

A picture signal (B&W) is 2-dimensional as it is a function of x and yColour TV is 3 channel 3 dimensional e.g. (x,y,t),

Continuous Time and Discrete Time Signals: (P,M)

•

Continuous time signals are defined for all value of time i.e. speech

•

Discrete time signals defined at specific instances of time x[n]Continuous time signals may be

•

analog if all values are allowed, or

•

Quantized Boxcar signals if specific values are allowed.Discrete time signals may be

•

digital (specific values) or

•

sampled (any value)

Deterministic and Random Signals: (P,M)

•

If an expression or a table can define a signal model then it is deterministic.The past present and future values can be known without uncertainty.

•

If the signal cannot be described to any reasonable degree of accuracy by anexpression, then it is random.

Concept of Frequency in Continuous and Discrete Time Signals: (P)Periodic Analog signal:

A periodic analog signal satisfies

)()(

T t xt x

aa

+=

where T is the repetition periode.g.

F t At x

a

π θ

2),2cos()(

=Ω+Ω=

uses

Ω

as frequency in radians /sec,

F

isfrequency in Hz.Here

F

can be increased without limit, and can also be 0, and all resulting signals aredistinct. Increasing F results in increase in the rate of oscillation.

Periodic Discrete Time signal:

The corresponding Discrete Time sinusoid would be

)cos()(

θ ω

+=

n An x

where

n

is aninteger called sample number.

ω

is the freq. in radians /sample,

f

π ω

2

=

and

f

hasdimensions of cycles/sample.It is periodic with a period

N

if and only if

)()(

n x N n x

=+

for all

n

.Smallest value of

N

is the Fundamental period.For a periodic discrete time sinusoid

))(2cos()2cos(

00

N n f n f

+=

π π

Thus

DSP2008.doc 3

π π

k N f

22

0

=

, where k is an integer, or

N k f

=

0

and must be a rational number.

Aliasing of Discrete Time Signals:

Discrete time sinusoids whose frequencies are separated by integer multiples of

π

2

are identical. For example,If

π ω ω

2

0

+=

k

then

)cos(

0

nw

and

)cos(

n

k

ω

are indistinguishable.However sinusoids in range

π ω π

≤≤−

or

2121

≤≤−

f

are always distinct.Signals with

π ω

>

are called aliases of some corresponding sinusoid with

π ω

<

Fundamental Frequency Range:

The highest rate of oscillation is when

π ω

=

or

π

−

or

21

=

f

or

21

−

The frequency range

π ω

20

≤≤

or

≤≤−≤≤≤≤−

2121,10

f f w

π π

is the calledthe fundamental range.

Representation as Complex Exponentials:

Continuous time exponential components can be used to represent a given periodicsignal, i.e. Fourier series.The discrete time complex exponential is periodic if its relative frequency is arational number. We may choose

N f

1

0

=

and define

n f jk

ens

0

2

)(

π

=

, with

2,1,0

±±=

k

etc.In this case however

)()()(

2)(2

nsnseens

k k N j N k n j
N k

===

++

π π

and there are only

N

distinct complex exponentials in the set.Hence

−=

=

10 / 2

)(

N k N nk j
k

ecn x

π

is a periodic signal with fundamental period

N

Sampling: (P)

Consider uniform sampling of an analogue signal

)()(

nT xn x

a

=

where

T

is samplingperiod, and

T F

s

1

=

the sampling frequency.Since

s

F nnT t

==

the analogue sinusoid can be written as

)2cos()(

θ π

+=

Ft At x

a

thus

+=+==

θ π θ π

sa

F F n AFnT An xnT x

2cos)2cos()()(

Comparing with the discrete time sinusoid expression

+∞−∞=Ω

=

k t jk k a

ect x

0

)(

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Maulin Amin added this note

MSU Notes :D :D :D Yay! I have a shoddy old hardcopy (yellowed pages) which was passed down to me by my senior. Read the document name, googled it and found it here!

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