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Hugh Piggott Axial Flow PMG Wind Turbine May 2003

Hugh Piggott Axial Flow PMG Wind Turbine May 2003

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Published by Bob Linder
alternative wind energy documention
alternative wind energy documention

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Published by: Bob Linder on Dec 02, 2010
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How to build a WIND TURBINE 
Axial flux alternator windmill plans8 foot and 4 foot diameter machines © Hugh Piggott -May 2003
 
How to build a wind generator - the axial flux alternator windmill plans - May 2003 version © Hugh Piggottpage 2 Hugh@scoraigwind.co.uk 
Introduction 
lades
hese plans describe how to build two sizes of machine.he diameter of the larger wind-rotor is 8 feet [2.4 m].he smaller machine has 4' diameter [1.2 m].he diameter is the width of the circularrea swept by the blades.he energy produced by wind turbinesepends on the swept area more than itoes on the alternator maximum output.
lternator 
he plans describe how to build a permanent magnetlternator.he alternator can be wired for 12, 24 or 48-volt battery harging. Essentially this choice only affects the size of ire and the number of turns per coil. But the toweriring for the 12-volt version will be much heavier thanhe others. And the stator for the small machine isifferent in thickness.he alternator design is integrated into a simple tower-topounting arrangement (called a 'yaw bearing'). A tailane faces the turbine into the wind. A built in rectifieronverts the electrical output to DC, ready to connect to aattery.Small wind turbines need low speed alternators. Low peed usually also means low power. The large machinelternator is exceptionally powerful because it contains 24arge neodymium magnets. The power/speed curve for aery similar design is shown below. Maximum output is bout 500 watts under normal circumstances, but it isapable of more than 1000 watts for short periods.he starting torque (force required to get it moving) isery low because there are no gears, nor are there any aminations in the alternator to produce magnetic drag.his means that the wind turbine can start in very low inds and produce useful power. Power losses are low inow winds so the best possible battery charge is available.n higher winds the alternator holds down the speed of thelades, so the machine is quiet in operation, and thelades do not wear out. You can easily stop the windurbine by short-circuiting the output with a 'brake witch'. These features make the wind turbine pleasant toive with.
lades
he blades are carved from wood with hand tools. Youan also use power tools if you prefer. Carved blades areood for homebuilders because the process is pleasant andthe results are quick for a one-off product. Mouldedfibreglass blades are usually better for batch production. Wooden blades will last for many years.
 Furling system
The plans include a description of how to construct afurling tail for the larger machine. This tail preventsoverload in high winds. This type of furling system has been in use on Scoraig for decades and has passed the testof time.
Units
This document caters for both American readers andEuropean/UK readers, so the dimensions are in bothinches and millimetres. The mm figures are in brackets[like this]. In some of the theory sections I use metricalone, because it makes the mathematics so much easier.In some cases, the metric dimensions will be directconversions of the English dimensions, but
not always
.The reasons are that different size magnets are used forthe metric design, metric wire sizes are different from AWG, and some important physical dimensions arerounded off to make more sense in mm.The US version typically uses a standard GM hub(Citation, Cavalier, etc) with five studs and a bearing at the back. The bearing housing needs a large circular hole inthe mounting at the back.I suggest you use only one system of measurement, eithermetric or 'English' and stick to that system. Your bestchoice of measurement system will depend on the magnetsize you choose.
Tolerances
Most of the dimensions given are nominal - the accuracy isnot critical, so you need to not follow the drawingsslavishly.The shapes of the blades are important near the tip butmuch less so near to the root (the larger, inner end of the blade).The alternator parts must be constructed and assembled with enough accuracy that the magnets pass the coilscentrally as the machine rotates.
DIAMETER
 
How to build a wind generator - the axial flux alternator windmill plans - May 2003 version © Hugh Piggottpage 3 Hugh@scoraigwind.co.uk 
CONTENTS 
Introduction................................................................2 
Blades................................................................................2 Alternator..........................................................................2Blades................................................................................2Furling system..................................................................2Units..................................................................................2Tolerances.........................................................................2
Glossary........................................................................4 Workshop tools...........................................................Materials for the large machine.............................6 Notes on workshop safety........................................8 
GENERAL.........................................................................8SPECIFIC HAZARDS.......................................................8METALWORK..................................................................8 WOODWORKING............................................................8RESINS AND GLUES.......................................................8MAGNETS........................................................................8ELECTRICAL....................................................................8
BLADE THEORY..............................................................
Blade power......................................................................9Blade speed.......................................................................9Blade number...................................................................9Blade shape.......................................................................9
Carving the blades...................................................10 
STEP ONE is to create the tapered shape.......................10STEP TWO carving the twisted windward face..............10STEP THREE carving the thickness...............................11STEP FOUR Carve the curved shape on the back of the blade.................................................................................12STEP FIVE Assembling the rotor hub............................12
LTERNATOR THEORY 
........................................15 Preparing the bearing hub.....................................15 
Drilling out the 1/2' [12 mm] holes in the flange............16
Fabricating the alternator mounts......................17 Drilling the magnet rotor plates...........................19 Making the coil winder............................................19 Winding the coils......................................................20 
ELECTRICAL THEORY 
..........................................21Connecting the coils................................................22 
Hints for soldering..........................................................22Soldering the coil tails....................................................22The ring neutral..............................................................22The output wiring...........................................................23
Making the stator mould.......................................23 
Mark out the shape of the stator....................................23Cut out the stator shape in plywood..............................24 Wiring exit holes.............................................................24Screw the mould to its base............................................24
Casting the stator....................................................25 
Dry run............................................................................25Putting it together...........................................................25Removing the casting from the mould...........................26
The magnet-positioning jig....................................26 Making the two rotor moulds................................28 
Index hole.......................................................................28Parts of the moulds.........................................................28
Casting the rotors...................................................29 
Preparation......................................................................29Handling the magnets.....................................................29Dry run............................................................................29Checking for magnet polarity.........................................29Putting it together...........................................................29
FURLING SYSTEM THEORY 
................................30 
 Why furl?.........................................................................30How the furling tail works..............................................30Controlling the thrust force............................................31
Fabricating the tail hinge......................................32 
The tail itself....................................................................33
Cutting out the tail vane.......................................34 Mounting the heatsink...........................................34 Assembling the alternator.....................................35 
Preparation......................................................................35Hub and shaft..................................................................35Back magnet rotor...........................................................35The stator.........................................................................35Front magnet rotor..........................................................36
Testing the alternator............................................36 
Short circuit tests............................................................36 AC voltage tests...............................................................36DC voltage tests...............................................................36
Connecting the rectifier.........................................Connecting the battery..........................................
Fuses or circuit breakers.................................................3Connections.....................................................................3Brake switch....................................................................3
Choosing suitable wire sizes..................................3 
 Wire type.........................................................................38
Fitting and balancing the blades.........................39 
Checking the tracking.....................................................39Balancing the rotor..........................................................39Fine tuning......................................................................39
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION......................................40 Guyed tower ideas...................................................40 Controlling the battery charge rate....................41
Shunt regulator circuit....................................................41List of components required...........................................41
Using polyester resin...............................................42 
Mould preparation..........................................................42
Small machine supplement....................................43 
Blades..............................................................................43Bearing hub.....................................................................43The shaft..........................................................................44Rotor moulding...............................................................44Stator mould....................................................................46 Assembly of the stator.....................................................46The yaw bearing..............................................................4The tail bearing and tail..................................................4 Wiring up the battery......................................................48

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