Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
3Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
PLL Applications

PLL Applications

Ratings: (0)|Views: 32 |Likes:
Published by Trinidad Méndez

More info:

Published by: Trinidad Méndez on Aug 03, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

06/03/2013

pdf

text

original

 
Application Report 
SCHA003B - September 2002 
1
CMOS Phase-Locked-Loop Applications Using the CD54/74HC/HCT4046A and CD54/74HC/HCT7046A
W. M. AustinStandard Linear & Logi
ABSTRACT
Applications of the HC/HCT4046A phase-locked loop (PLL) and HC/HCT7046A PLL withlock detection are provided, including design examples with calculated and measuredresults. Features of these devices relative to phase comparators, lock indicators,voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs), and filter design are presented.
ContentsIntroduction4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Basic Loop Operation4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Description of the HC/HCT4046A6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Phase Comparators (PCs)8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operation of Phase Comparator PC19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Operation of Phase Comparator PC29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Operation of Phase Comparator PC3 (HC/HCT4046A Only)12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lock Indicators13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PCP
out
of the HC/HCT4046A13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lock Detector of the HC/HCT7046A13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO)15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VCO Description15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VCO Frequency Control17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VCO Parametric Ranges and Restrictions22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Design Examples With Measured and Calculated Results23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Design Examples With and Without Offset27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example With Offset28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Example Without Offset29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rules of Thumb for Quick Calculations30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Tabulated Solutions31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Filter Design for the HC/HCT4046A31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Loop Examples32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LPF Using PC1 (Example 1)32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Using PC2 With a Lag-Lead Filter (Example 2)36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Simple LPF Using PC2 (Example 3)37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Simple LPF Using PC2 With Divide-by-N (Example 4)37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Simple RC LPF Using Frequency Offset and PC2 (Example 5)38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
SCHA003B 
2
CMOS Phase-Locked-Loop Applications Using the CD54/74HC/HCT4046A and CD54/74HC/HCT7046A
LPF Design Summary39. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bibliography and References40. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Acknowledgments40. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Appendix APhase-Comparator Summary Information41. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Appendix BLoop Parameters and Equations43. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Appendix CBasic Program for VCO Frequency Calculations46. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Appendix DR1, R2, and C1 Values With Calculated f
osc
PC Solutions FromEquations 3, 4, and 5 (VCC = 6 V)49. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Appendix EHC4046A PLL Layout With Simple RC Filter (R3C2)50. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Figures
1Block Diagram of an HC/HCT4046A in a Typical PLL Circuit4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2Block Diagram of an HC/HCT4046A With External Loop Filtering6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3HC/HCT4046A Functional Block Diagram7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4HC/HCT7046A Functional Block Diagram8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5PC1 Average Output Voltage as a Function of Input Phase Difference9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6Typical Waveforms for PLL With PC1 Loop Locked at f
o
10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7PC2 Average Output Voltage as a Function of Input Phase Difference11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8Typical Waveforms for PLL With PC2 Loop Locked at f
o
11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9PC3 Average Output Voltage as a Function of Input Phase Differences12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Typical Waveforms for PLL With PC3 Loop Locked at f
o
12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11Lock-Detector Circuitry in the HC/HCT7046A13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12Waveform at Lock-Detector Capacitor When in Lock14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13Graph For Determining Value of Lock-Detector Capacitor14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14Waveforms at Lock-Detector Capacitor When Unlocked15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15VCO Portion of CD74HC4046A/7046A Functional Block Diagram16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16Equivalent HC/HCT4046A Charge Circuit of the VCO17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17HC/HCT4046A VCO Waveforms18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18Current Multiplier Ratio M2 as a Function of R2 Bias Current18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19Mirror Current as a Function of R2 Bias Current, Showing Range of Linearity19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20Mirror Current as a Function of R1 Bias Current, Showing Range ofLinearity (Pin 9 VCO
in
= 0.5 VCC)19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21Mirror Current as a Function of R1 Bias Current, Showing Range ofLinearity (Pin 9 VCO
in
= 0.95 VCC)20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22VCO Frequency as a Function of VCO
in
(Measured and calculated values are shown.R1 = R2 = 10 kW, C1 = 47 pF, Cs = 6 pF, Tpd = 11 ns at VCC = 5 V,and Tpd = 15 ns at VCC = 3 V)23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23HC/HCT4046A PLL VCO Test Circuit24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24VCO Frequency as a Function of VCO
in
, Showing Effects of Different Values ofR1 and R2 (10 kW and 100 kW)24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
SCHA003B 
3
CMOS Phase-Locked-Loop Applications Using the CD54/74HC/HCT4046A and CD54/74HC/HCT7046A
25VCO Frequency and Power-Supply Current as a Function of Operating VoltageVCC, Showing Effects of Different Values of R2 (5 kW and 10 kW).25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26VCO Frequency as a Function of VCO
in
, Showing Effects of Different Valuesof R1 and R2 (10 kW and 1 MW)26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27VCO Frequency as a Function of VCO
in
, Showing Duty-Cycle Control Obtainedby Splitting Capacitor C1 and Controlling the Ratio of C1A and C1B27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28Evaluation Circuit and Waveforms for Data in Figure 2727. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29Forms of LPF and Associated Loop Equations35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .E1HC4046A PLL Layout With Simple RC Filter (R3C2)49. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
List of Tables
1Results for Simple LPF Using PC2 With Divide-by-N38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2Results for Simple RC LPF Using Frequency Offset and PC239. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->