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Induction Motor

Induction Motor

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Published by: bspr282 on Dec 02, 2010
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Induction motor
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to:navigation, search  This article
may require copy editingfor grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling
.You can assist by editing it.
(October 2010)
Three-phase induction motorsAnimation of a squirrel-cage AC motor An
induction motor
asynchronous motor
is a type of alternating current motor where power is supplied to therotor by means of electromagnetic induction.
Anelectric motor turns because of magnetic force exerted between a stationaryelectromagnet  called thestator and a rotating electromagnet called therotor . Different types of electric motors are distinguished by how electric current is supplied to the moving rotor. In a DC motor and a slip-ring AC motor , current is provided to the rotor directly through sliding electrical contacts  calledcommutators andslip rings. In an induction motor, by contrast, the current is induced in the rotor without contacts by the magnetic field of the stator, throughelectromagnetic induction.  An induction motor is sometimes called a
rotating transformer 
because the stator  (stationary  part) is essentially the primary side of thetransformer and the rotor (rotating part) is the
secondary side. Unlike the normaltransformer  which changes the current by using time varying flux, induction motors use rotating magnetic fields to transform the voltage. The current in the primary side creates anelectromagnetic fieldwhich interacts with the electromagnetic field of the secondary side to produce a resultant torque, thereby transforming the electrical energy intomechanical energy. Induction motors are widely used, especially polyphaseinduction motors,which are frequently used in industrial drives.Induction motors are now the preferred choice for industrial motors due to their ruggedconstruction, absence of brushes (which are required in most DC motors) and—thanks to modern power electronics—the ability to control the speed of the motor.
[edit] History
The first induction motors were independently realized byGalileo Ferraris, inItaly, and Nikola Tesla, inAmerica. Tesla had conceived the rotating magnetic field principle in 1882 and used it to invent the first brushless AC motor or induction motor in 1883.
Ferraris developedthe idea in 1885.
In 1888, Ferraris published his research in a paper to the RoyalAcademy of Sciences in Turin where he detailed the theoretical foundations for understandingthe way the motor operates.
Separately, in the same year, Tesla gainedU.S. Patent 381,968.  The induction motor with a cage was invented byMikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky about a year  later.
[edit] Principle of operation and comparison to synchronousmotors
A 3-phase power supply provides a rotating magnetic field in an induction motor.The basic difference between an induction motor and asynchronous AC motor with a permanentmagnet rotor is that in the latter the rotating magnetic field of the stator will impose anelectromagnetic torque on the magnetic field of the rotor causing it to move (about a shaft) and asteady rotation of the rotor is produced. It is called synchronous because at steady state the speedof the rotor is the same as the speed of the rotating magnetic field in the stator.By way of contrast, the induction motor does not have any permanent magnets on the rotor;instead, a current is induced in the rotor. To achieve this, stator windings are arranged around therotor so that when energised with a polyphase supply they create arotating magnetic field  pattern which sweeps past the rotor. This changing magnetic field pattern induces current in the rotor conductors. These currents interact with the rotating magnetic field created by the stator and ineffect causes a rotational motion on the rotor.However, for these currents to be induced, the speed of the physical rotor must be less than thespeed of the rotating magnetic field in the stator (the
 synchronous frequency
) or else themagnetic field will not be moving relative to the rotor conductors and no currents will beinduced. If by some chance this happens, the rotor typically slows slightly until a current is re-induced and then the rotor continues as before. This difference between the speed of the rotor and speed of the rotating magnetic field in the stator is called
. It is unitless and is the ratio between the relative speed of the magnetic field as seen by the rotor (the
 slip speed 
) to the speedof the rotating stator field. Due to this, an induction motor is sometimes referred to as anasynchronous machine.
[edit] Synchronous speed
Understanding the behaviour of induction motors, it's useful to understand the differerences froma synchronous motor. That type of motor always runs at a synchronous speed- a shaft rotationfrequency that is an integer fraction of the supply frequency. The synchronous speed of aninduction motor is the same fraction of the supply.It can be shown that the speed of a synchronous motor is determined by the following formula:where
is the (synchronous) speed of the rotor (inrpm
is the number of magnetic poles.
For example, a 6 pole motor operating on 60 Hz power would have a speed of:

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