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1.1. Introduction
1.2. Signals: categories, representations and characterizations
1.2.1. Definition of continuous-time and discrete-time signals
1.2.2. Deterministic and random signals
1.2.3. Periodic signals
1.2.4. Mean, energy and power
1.2.5. Autocorrelation function
1.3. Systems
1.4. Properties of discrete-time systems
1.4.1. Invariant linear systems
1.4.2. Impulse responses and convolution products
1.4.3. Causality
1.4.4. Interconnections of discrete-time systems
1.5. Bibliography
2.1. Introduction
2.2. The z-transform
2.2.1. Representations and summaries
2.2.2. Properties of the z-transform
2.2.2.1. Linearity
2.2.2.3. Convolution
2.2.2.10. Parseval’s theorem
2.2.3. Table of standard transform
2.3. The inverse z-transform
2.3.1. Introduction
2.3.2. Methods of determining inverse z-transforms
2.4. Transfer functions and difference equations
2.4.1. The transfer function of a continuous system
2.4.2. Transfer functions of discrete systems
2.5. Z-transforms of the autocorrelation and intercorrelation functions
2.6. Stability
2.6.1. Bounded input, bounded output (BIBO) stability
2.6.2. Regions of convergence
2.6.2.2. Jury’s criterion
Frequential Characterization of Signals and Filters
3.1. Introduction
3.2. The Fourier transform of continuous signals
3.2.2. Fourier transforms and continuous signals
3.2.2.2. Properties
3.2.2.6. The Fourier transform of a Dirac comb
3.3. The discrete Fourier transform (DFT)
3.3.1. Expressing the Fourier transform of a discrete sequence
3.3.2. Relations between the Laplace and Fourier z-transforms
3.3.3. The inverse Fourier transform
3.3.4. The discrete Fourier transform
3.4. The fast Fourier transform (FFT)
3.6. Frequential characterization of a continuous-time system
3.6.1. First and second order filters
3.7. Frequential characterization of discrete-time system
3.7.1. Amplitude and phase frequential diagrams
3.7.2. Application
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Different types of filters and filter specifications
4.3.2.3. Determining the cut-off frequency at –3 dB and filter orders
4.3.2.4. Application
4.4. Equiripple filters and the Chebyshev approximation
4.4.1. Characteristics of the Chebyshev approximation
4.4.2. Type I Chebyshev filters
4.4.2.4. Determining the cut-off frequency at –3 dB and the filter order
4.4.2.5. Application
4.4.3. Type II Chebyshev filter
4.4.3.2. Application
4.5. Elliptic filters: the Cauer approximation
4.7.1. Reminders on continuous linear phase filters
4.7.2. Properties of Bessel-Thomson filters
4.7.3. Bessel and Bessel-Thomson filters
4.8. Papoulis filters (optimum (On))
4.8.1. General characteristics
4.8.2. Determining the poles of the transfer function
4.9. Bibliography
5.1. Introduction to finite impulse response filters
5.1.1. Difference equations and FIR filters
5.1.2. Linear phase FIR filters
5.1.3. Summary of the properties of FIR filters
5.2. Synthesizing FIR filters using frequential specifications
5.2.1. Windows
5.2.2. Synthesizing FIR filters using the windowing method
5.3. Optimal approach of equal ripple in the stop-band and passband
5.4. Bibliography
6.1. Introduction to infinite impulse response filters
6.1.1. Examples of IIR filters
6.1.2. Zero-loss and all-pass filters
6.1.3. Minimum-phase filters
6.1.3.1. Problem
6.2. Synthesizing IIR filters
6.2.1. Impulse invariance method for analog to digital filter conversion
6.2.2. The invariance method of the indicial response
6.2.3. Bilinear transformations
6.3. Bibliography
7.1. Introduction
7.2. Structure of FIR filters
7.3. Structure of IIR filters
7.3.1. Direct structures
7.4.3.1. Introduction
7.5. Bibliography
8.1. Introduction
8.2. Continuous models
8.2.1. Representation of 2-D signals
8.2.2. Analog filtering
8.3. Discrete models
8.3.1. 2-D sampling
8.3.2. The aliasing phenomenon and Shannon’s theorem
8.3.2.2. Aliasing effect
8.4. Filtering in the spatial domain
8.4.1. 2-D discrete convolution
8.4.2. Separable filters
8.4.3. Separable recursive filtering
8.4.4. Processing of side effects
8.5. Filtering in the frequency domain
8.5.1. 2-D discrete Fourier transform (DFT)
8.5.2. The circular convolution effect
8.6. Bibliography
Two-Dimensional Finite Impulse Response Filter Design
9.1. Introduction
9.2. Introduction to 2-D FIR filters
9.3. Synthesizing with the two-dimensional windowing method
9.3.1. Principles of method
9.3.2. Theoretical 2-D frequency shape
9.3.2.1. Rectangular frequency shape
9.3.2.2. Circular shape
9.3.3. Digital 2-D filter design by windowing
9.3.4. Applying filters based on rectangular and circular shapes
9.3.5. 2-D Gaussian filters
9.3.6. 1-D and 2-D representations in a continuous space
9.3.7. Approximation for FIR filters
9.4. Appendix: spatial window functions and their implementation
9.5. Bibliography
10.1. Introduction
10.2. The Schur-Cohn criterion
10.3. Appendix: resultant of two polynomials
10.4. Bibliography
11.1. Recursive filters
11.1.1. Transfer functions
11.1.2. The 2-D z-transform
11.1.3. Stability, causality and semi-causality
11.2. Stability criteria
11.2.1. Causal filters
11.2.2. Semi-causal filters
11.3. Algorithms used in stability tests
11.3.1. The Jury Table
11.3.2. Algorithms based on calculating the Bezout resultant
11.3.3. Algorithms and rounding-off errors
11.4. Linear predictive coding
11.5. Appendix A: demonstration of the Schur-Cohn criterion
11.6. Appendix B: optimum 2-D stability criteria
11.7. Bibliography
List of Authors
Index
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Digital Filters Design for Signal & Image Processing

# Digital Filters Design for Signal & Image Processing

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