P. 1
Biometrika i Planiranje Istrazivanja 2010

# Biometrika i Planiranje Istrazivanja 2010

Ratings:
(0)
|Views: 1,174|Likes:
Published by Nenad Zirdum

### More info:

Published by: Nenad Zirdum on Dec 02, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

### Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/17/2013

pdf

text

original

Biometrika i planiranje istraživanja na životinjama
Miroslav Kapštel: 239-3949e-mail: mkaps@agr.hr

1 UVOD.............................................................................................................................................................................1

1.1

P
ODACI I VARIJABLE
..................................................................................................................................................1

1.2

P
RIKAZ PODATAKA
....................................................................................................................................................3

1.2.1 Grafi
č
ki prikazi.................................................................................................................................................3

1.2.2 Numeri
č
ke metode za opis kvantitativnih podataka..........................................................................................3

1.2.3 Simboli..............................................................................................................................................................3

1.2.4 Aritmeti
č
ka srednja vrijednost:.........................................................................................................................4

1.2.5 Varijanca uzorka:.............................................................................................................................................4

1.2.6 Standardna devijacija uzorka...........................................................................................................................5

1.2.7 Uvodni SAS primjer..........................................................................................................................................5

1.3

Z
AKLJU
Č
CI O POPULACIJAMA NA TEMELJU UZORAKA
................................................................................................6

1.4

S
LU
Č
AJNE VARIJABLE I NJIHOVE RASPODJELE
...........................................................................................................6

1.4.1 Raspodjele vjerojatnosti za diskretne slu
č
ajne varijable..................................................................................

1.4.2 Raspodjele vjerojatnosti za kontinuirane slu
č
ajne varijable............................................................................8

1.5

F
UNKCIJE SLU
Č
AJNE VARIJABLE
..............................................................................................................................14

1.5.1 Neke statistike i njihove raspodjele.................................................................................................................15

1.5.2 Stupnjevi slobode............................................................................................................................................16

1.6

Z
AKLJU
Č
IVANJE O POPULACIJI NA TEMELJU UZORAKA
............................................................................................16

1.7

P
ROCJENA PARAMETARA
.........................................................................................................................................16

1.7.1 Procjena srednje vrijednosti populacije.........................................................................................................17

1.7.2 Procjena varijance u normalnoj populaciji....................................................................................................17

1.8

P
ROVJERA HIPOTEZA
...............................................................................................................................................17

1.8.1 P-vrijednost.....................................................................................................................................................18

1.8.2 Statisti
č
ka i prakti
č
na zna
č
ajnost...................................................................................................................19

1.8.3 Mogu
ć
e greške kod statisti
č
kog zaklju
č
ivanja i snaga provjere.....................................................................19

2 JEDNOSTAVNA LINEARNA REGRESIJA...........................................................................................................21

2.1

U
VOD
......................................................................................................................................................................21

2.2

P
ROCJENA PARAMETARA
Β
0
I
Β
1
...............................................................................................................................23

2.3

O
STATAK I SVOJSTVA OSTATKA
...............................................................................................................................24

2.4

P
ROSJECI I VARIJANCE PROCJENITELJA
....................................................................................................................24

2.5

S
TUDENTOVA
-
PROVJERA I INTERVAL POUZDANOSTI PROCJENE PARAMETARA
......................................................25

2.6

I
NTERVAL POUZDANOSTI ZA
Β
1
................................................................................................................................26

2.7

I
NTERVALI POUZDANOSTI ZAVISNE VARIJABLE
.......................................................................................................26

2.8

Č
LANJENJE UKUPNE VARIJABILNOSTI
................................................................................................................28

2.8.1 Veza izme
đ
u suma kvadrata............................................................................................................................29

2.9

P
ROVJERA HIPOTEZA
-

F
-
PROVJERA
........................................................................................................................30

2.10

OEFICIJENT DETERMINACIJE
(R
2
)........................................................................................................................31

2.11

SAS
PRIMJER ZA JEDNOSTAVNU LINEARNU REGRESIJU
..........................................................................................32

3 KOEFICIJENT KORELACIJE................................................................................................................................34

3.1

P
ROCJENA KOEFICIJENTA KORELACIJE
.....................................................................................................................35

4 VEKTORI I MATRICE.............................................................................................................................................36

4.1

T
IPOVI I SVOJSTVA MATRICA
...................................................................................................................................36

4.1.1 Operacije s matricama i vektorima:...............................................................................................................37

5 JEDNOSTAVNA REGRESIJA U MATRI
Č
NOM PRIKAZU...............................................................................40

6 MULTIPLA REGRESIJA..........................................................................................................................................43

6.1

D
VIJE NEZAVISNE VARIJABLE
..................................................................................................................................43

6.1.1 Raš
č
lanjenje ukupne varijabilnosti i provjera hipoteza.................................................................................45

6.2

P
ARCIJALNE I STUPNJEVITE EKSTRA SUME KVADRATA
............................................................................................46

6.3

SAS
PRIMJER ZA MULTIPLU REGRESIJU
...................................................................................................................47

6.4

RIVOLINIJSKA REGRESIJA DRUGOG STUPNJA
.........................................................................................................48

6.4.1 SAS primjer za kvadratnu regresiju................................................................................................................49

6.5

M
OGU
Ć
E POTEŠKO
Ć
E KOD UPOTREBE REGRESIJE
....................................................................................................50

6.5.1 Analiza ostataka i narušenost pretpostavki modela........................................................................................51

6.5.2 Loša opažanja.................................................................................................................................................52

6.5.3 Multikolinearnost............................................................................................................................................52

6.6

I
ZGRADNJA MODELA I KRITERIJI ZA IZBOR MODELA
.................................................................................................53

7 JEDNOSTRUKA ANALIZA VARIJANCE.............................................................................................................54

7.1

M
ODEL JEDNOSTRUKE ANALIZE VARIJANCE S FIKSNIM UTJECAJIMA
........................................................................55

7.1.1 Raš
č
lanjenje ukupne varijabilnosti na izvore varijabilnosti:.........................................................................56

7.1.2 Postavljanje hipoteza i F-provjera.................................................................................................................57

7.2

U
SPOREDBA SREDNJIH VRIJEDNOSTI POJEDINIH GRUPA
...........................................................................................59

7.2.1 Najmanja zna
č
ajna razlika (LSD)..................................................................................................................59

7.2.2 Tukey provjera (HSD).....................................................................................................................................59

7.3

SAS
PRIMJER JEDNOSTRUKE ANALIZE VARIJANCE S FIKSNIM UTJECAJIMA
..............................................................60

7.4

M
ODEL SA SLU
Č
AJNIM UTJECAJIMA GRUPA
.............................................................................................................61

7.5

I
NTRAKLASNA KORELACIJA
.....................................................................................................................................63

7.6

SAS
PRIMJER JEDNOSTRUKE ANALIZE VARIJANCE SA SLU
Č
AJNIM UTJECAJIMA
.......................................................64

8 NA
Č
ELA PLANIRANJA POKUSA..........................................................................................................................65

8.1

P
OKUSNA JEDINICA I TRETMANI
..............................................................................................................................66

8.2

P
ONAVLJANJA I POKUSNA GREŠKA
..........................................................................................................................66

8.3

P
OTREBAN BROJ PONAVLJANJA
...............................................................................................................................67

9 POTPUNO SLU
Č
AJNI POKUSNI PLAN................................................................................................................68

10 BLOKOVI U ANALIZI VARIJANCE....................................................................................................................70

10.1

S
LU
Č
AJNI BLOK PLAN
(
POTPUNI
)...........................................................................................................................70

10.1.1 Raš
č
lanjenje ukupne sume kvadrata.............................................................................................................71

10.1.2 Postavljanje hipoteza i F-provjera...............................................................................................................72

10.1.3 SAS primjer za slu
č
ajni blok plan.................................................................................................................73

10.1.4 SAS primjer s više pokusnih jedinica po kombinaciji blok x tretman...........................................................74

11 'CHANGE-OVER' POKUSNI PLANOVI..............................................................................................................77

11.1

J
EDNOSTAVNI
'
CHANGE
-
OVER
'
PLAN
......................................................................................................................77

11.2

'C
HANGE
-
OVER
'
PLAN KADA POSTOJI UTJECAJ RAZDOBLJA
....................................................................................78

11.2.1 SAS primjer za ‘change-over’ plan s utjecajem razdoblja...........................................................................79

11.3

L
ATINSKI KVADRAT
...............................................................................................................................................80

11.3.1 SAS primjer za latinski kvadrat.....................................................................................................................82

11.4

C
HANGE OVER PLAN POSTAVLJEN KAO VIŠE LATINSKIH KVADRATA
......................................................................84

12 FAKTORIJALNI POKUS........................................................................................................................................85

12.1

SAS
PRIMJER ZA FAKTORIJALNI POKUS
.................................................................................................................88

13 HIJERARHIJSKI POKUSNI PLANOVI...............................................................................................................90

13.1

SAS
PRIMJER ZA HIJERARHIJSKI PLAN
...................................................................................................................92

14 POKUSNI PLANOVI SA KAVEZIMA I PREGONIMA.....................................................................................94

15 DVOSTRUKI BLOKOVI.........................................................................................................................................96

16 SPLIT PLOT POKUSNI PLAN.............................................................................................................................100

16.1

F
AKTOR
A

(
GLAVNI FAKTOR
)
KAO SLU
Č
AJNI BLOK PLAN
....................................................................................100

16.1.1 SAS Primjer: Split plot plan, glavne jedinice kao slu
č
ajni blokovi............................................................101

16.2

F
AKTOR
A

(
GLAVNI FAKTOR
)
KAO POTPUNO SLU
Č
AJNI PLAN
..............................................................................103

16.2.1 SAS primjer: Glavne jedinice u potpuno slu
č
ajnom planu.........................................................................104

17 ANALIZA KOVARIJANCE..................................................................................................................................106

17.1

P
OTPUNO SLU
Č
AJNI POKUSNI PLAN SA KOVARIJABLOM
.......................................................................................106

## Activity (11)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
Marko Stojanovic liked this
Damir Ravančić liked this
Јована Мартић liked this
Marija Sever liked this
Milos Uzelac liked this
dcefgh1 liked this
Amar Bapic liked this
HalilKrizevac liked this
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->