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Biometrika i Planiranje Istrazivanja 2010

Biometrika i Planiranje Istrazivanja 2010

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Published by: Nenad Zirdum on Dec 02, 2010
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05/17/2013

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Biometrika i planiranje istraživanja na životinjama
Miroslav Kapštel: 239-3949e-mail: mkaps@agr.hr 
 
 
1 UVOD.............................................................................................................................................................................1
 
1.1
 
P
ODACI I VARIJABLE
..................................................................................................................................................1
 
1.2
 
P
RIKAZ PODATAKA
....................................................................................................................................................3
 
1.2.1 Grafi
č 
ki prikazi.................................................................................................................................................3
 
1.2.2 Numeri
č 
ke metode za opis kvantitativnih podataka..........................................................................................3
 
1.2.3 Simboli..............................................................................................................................................................3
 
1.2.4 Aritmeti
č 
ka srednja vrijednost:.........................................................................................................................4
 
1.2.5 Varijanca uzorka:.............................................................................................................................................4
 
1.2.6 Standardna devijacija uzorka...........................................................................................................................5
 
1.2.7 Uvodni SAS primjer..........................................................................................................................................5
 
1.3
 
Z
AKLJU
Č
CI O POPULACIJAMA NA TEMELJU UZORAKA
................................................................................................6
 
1.4
 
S
LU
Č
AJNE VARIJABLE I NJIHOVE RASPODJELE
...........................................................................................................6
 
1.4.1 Raspodjele vjerojatnosti za diskretne slu
č 
ajne varijable..................................................................................
 
1.4.2 Raspodjele vjerojatnosti za kontinuirane slu
č 
ajne varijable............................................................................8
 
1.5
 
F
UNKCIJE SLU
Č
AJNE VARIJABLE
..............................................................................................................................14
 
1.5.1 Neke statistike i njihove raspodjele.................................................................................................................15
 
1.5.2 Stupnjevi slobode............................................................................................................................................16 
 
1.6
 
Z
AKLJU
Č
IVANJE O POPULACIJI NA TEMELJU UZORAKA
............................................................................................16
 
1.7
 
P
ROCJENA PARAMETARA
.........................................................................................................................................16
 
1.7.1 Procjena srednje vrijednosti populacije.........................................................................................................17 
 
1.7.2 Procjena varijance u normalnoj populaciji....................................................................................................17 
 
1.8
 
P
ROVJERA HIPOTEZA
...............................................................................................................................................17
 
1.8.1 P-vrijednost.....................................................................................................................................................18
 
1.8.2 Statisti
č 
ka i prakti
č 
na zna
č 
ajnost...................................................................................................................19
 
1.8.3 Mogu
ć
e greške kod statisti
č 
kog zaklju
č 
ivanja i snaga provjere.....................................................................19
 
2 JEDNOSTAVNA LINEARNA REGRESIJA...........................................................................................................21
 
2.1
 
U
VOD
......................................................................................................................................................................21
 
2.2
 
P
ROCJENA PARAMETARA
 Β
0
I
 Β
1
...............................................................................................................................23
 
2.3
 
O
STATAK I SVOJSTVA OSTATKA
...............................................................................................................................24
 
2.4
 
P
ROSJECI I VARIJANCE PROCJENITELJA
....................................................................................................................24
 
2.5
 
S
TUDENTOVA
-
PROVJERA I INTERVAL POUZDANOSTI PROCJENE PARAMETARA
......................................................25
 
2.6
 
I
 NTERVAL POUZDANOSTI ZA
 Β
1
................................................................................................................................26
 
2.7
 
I
 NTERVALI POUZDANOSTI ZAVISNE VARIJABLE
.......................................................................................................26
 
2.8
 
Č
LANJENJE UKUPNE VARIJABILNOSTI
................................................................................................................28
 
2.8.1 Veza izme
đ 
u suma kvadrata............................................................................................................................29
 
2.9
 
P
ROVJERA HIPOTEZA
-
 
 F 
-
PROVJERA
........................................................................................................................30
 
2.10
 
OEFICIJENT DETERMINACIJE
(R 
2
)........................................................................................................................31
 
2.11
 
SAS
PRIMJER ZA JEDNOSTAVNU LINEARNU REGRESIJU
..........................................................................................32
 
3 KOEFICIJENT KORELACIJE................................................................................................................................34
 
3.1
 
P
ROCJENA KOEFICIJENTA KORELACIJE
.....................................................................................................................35
 
4 VEKTORI I MATRICE.............................................................................................................................................36
 
4.1
 
T
IPOVI I SVOJSTVA MATRICA
...................................................................................................................................36
 
4.1.1 Operacije s matricama i vektorima:...............................................................................................................37 
 
5 JEDNOSTAVNA REGRESIJA U MATRI
Č
NOM PRIKAZU...............................................................................40
 
6 MULTIPLA REGRESIJA..........................................................................................................................................43
 
6.1
 
D
VIJE NEZAVISNE VARIJABLE
..................................................................................................................................43
 
6.1.1 Raš 
č 
lanjenje ukupne varijabilnosti i provjera hipoteza.................................................................................45
 
6.2
 
P
ARCIJALNE I STUPNJEVITE EKSTRA SUME KVADRATA
............................................................................................46
 
6.3
 
SAS
PRIMJER ZA MULTIPLU REGRESIJU
...................................................................................................................47
 
6.4
 
RIVOLINIJSKA REGRESIJA DRUGOG STUPNJA
.........................................................................................................48
 
6.4.1 SAS primjer za kvadratnu regresiju................................................................................................................49
 
6.5
 
M
OGU
Ć
E POTEŠKO
Ć
E KOD UPOTREBE REGRESIJE
....................................................................................................50
 
6.5.1 Analiza ostataka i narušenost pretpostavki modela........................................................................................51
 
 
 
6.5.2 Loša opažanja.................................................................................................................................................52
 
6.5.3 Multikolinearnost............................................................................................................................................52
 
6.6
 
I
ZGRADNJA MODELA I KRITERIJI ZA IZBOR MODELA
.................................................................................................53
 
7 JEDNOSTRUKA ANALIZA VARIJANCE.............................................................................................................54
 
7.1
 
M
ODEL JEDNOSTRUKE ANALIZE VARIJANCE S FIKSNIM UTJECAJIMA
........................................................................55
 
7.1.1 Raš 
č 
lanjenje ukupne varijabilnosti na izvore varijabilnosti:.........................................................................56 
 
7.1.2 Postavljanje hipoteza i F-provjera.................................................................................................................57 
 
7.2
 
U
SPOREDBA SREDNJIH VRIJEDNOSTI POJEDINIH GRUPA
...........................................................................................59
 
7.2.1 Najmanja zna
č 
ajna razlika (LSD)..................................................................................................................59
 
7.2.2 Tukey provjera (HSD).....................................................................................................................................59
 
7.3
 
SAS
PRIMJER JEDNOSTRUKE ANALIZE VARIJANCE S FIKSNIM UTJECAJIMA
..............................................................60
 
7.4
 
M
ODEL SA SLU
Č
AJNIM UTJECAJIMA GRUPA
.............................................................................................................61
 
7.5
 
I
 NTRAKLASNA KORELACIJA
.....................................................................................................................................63
 
7.6
 
SAS
PRIMJER JEDNOSTRUKE ANALIZE VARIJANCE SA SLU
Č
AJNIM UTJECAJIMA
.......................................................64
 
8 NA
Č
ELA PLANIRANJA POKUSA..........................................................................................................................65
 
8.1
 
P
OKUSNA JEDINICA I TRETMANI
..............................................................................................................................66
 
8.2
 
P
ONAVLJANJA I POKUSNA GREŠKA
..........................................................................................................................66
 
8.3
 
P
OTREBAN BROJ PONAVLJANJA
...............................................................................................................................67
 
9 POTPUNO SLU
Č
AJNI POKUSNI PLAN................................................................................................................68
 
10 BLOKOVI U ANALIZI VARIJANCE....................................................................................................................70
 
10.1
 
S
LU
Č
AJNI BLOK PLAN
(
POTPUNI
)...........................................................................................................................70
 
10.1.1 Raš 
č 
lanjenje ukupne sume kvadrata.............................................................................................................71
 
10.1.2 Postavljanje hipoteza i F-provjera...............................................................................................................72
 
10.1.3 SAS primjer za slu
č 
ajni blok plan.................................................................................................................73
 
10.1.4 SAS primjer s više pokusnih jedinica po kombinaciji blok x tretman...........................................................74
 
11 'CHANGE-OVER' POKUSNI PLANOVI..............................................................................................................77
 
11.1
 
J
EDNOSTAVNI
'
CHANGE
-
OVER 
'
PLAN
......................................................................................................................77
 
11.2
 
'C
HANGE
-
OVER 
'
PLAN KADA POSTOJI UTJECAJ RAZDOBLJA
....................................................................................78
 
11.2.1 SAS primjer za ‘change-over’ plan s utjecajem razdoblja...........................................................................79
 
11.3
 
L
ATINSKI KVADRAT
...............................................................................................................................................80
 
11.3.1 SAS primjer za latinski kvadrat.....................................................................................................................82
 
11.4
 
C
HANGE OVER PLAN POSTAVLJEN KAO VIŠE LATINSKIH KVADRATA
......................................................................84
 
12 FAKTORIJALNI POKUS........................................................................................................................................85
 
12.1
 
SAS
PRIMJER ZA FAKTORIJALNI POKUS
.................................................................................................................88
 
13 HIJERARHIJSKI POKUSNI PLANOVI...............................................................................................................90
 
13.1
 
SAS
PRIMJER ZA HIJERARHIJSKI PLAN
...................................................................................................................92
 
14 POKUSNI PLANOVI SA KAVEZIMA I PREGONIMA.....................................................................................94
 
15 DVOSTRUKI BLOKOVI.........................................................................................................................................96
 
16 SPLIT PLOT POKUSNI PLAN.............................................................................................................................100
 
16.1
 
F
AKTOR 
A
 
(
GLAVNI FAKTOR 
)
KAO SLU
Č
AJNI BLOK PLAN
....................................................................................100
 
16.1.1 SAS Primjer: Split plot plan, glavne jedinice kao slu
č 
ajni blokovi............................................................101
 
16.2
 
F
AKTOR 
A
 
(
GLAVNI FAKTOR 
)
KAO POTPUNO SLU
Č
AJNI PLAN
..............................................................................103
 
16.2.1 SAS primjer: Glavne jedinice u potpuno slu
č 
ajnom planu.........................................................................104
 
17 ANALIZA KOVARIJANCE..................................................................................................................................106
 
17.1
 
P
OTPUNO SLU
Č
AJNI POKUSNI PLAN SA KOVARIJABLOM
.......................................................................................106
 

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