Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
foo' + alert('Hi Kids!') + 'bar

foo' + alert('Hi Kids!') + 'bar

Ratings: (0)|Views: 28 |Likes:
Published by Señor Smiles
DOCUMENT IMAGE ZONE CLASSIFICATION
A Simple High-Performance Approach
Daniel Keysers, Faisal Shafait
German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI) GmbH, Kaiserslautern, Germany {daniel.keysers, faisal.shafait}@dfki.de

Thomas M. Breuel
Technical University of Kaiserslautern, Germany tmb@informatik.uni-kl.de

Keywords: Abstract:

Document Image Analysis, Zone Classification We describe a simple, fast, and accurate system for document image zone classification — an important subproblem of
DOCUMENT IMAGE ZONE CLASSIFICATION
A Simple High-Performance Approach
Daniel Keysers, Faisal Shafait
German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI) GmbH, Kaiserslautern, Germany {daniel.keysers, faisal.shafait}@dfki.de

Thomas M. Breuel
Technical University of Kaiserslautern, Germany tmb@informatik.uni-kl.de

Keywords: Abstract:

Document Image Analysis, Zone Classification We describe a simple, fast, and accurate system for document image zone classification — an important subproblem of

More info:

Published by: Señor Smiles on Dec 02, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

07/21/2011

pdf

text

original

 
DOCUMENTIMAGEZONECLASSIFICATION
 A Simple High-Performance Approach
Daniel Keysers, Faisal Shafait
German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI) GmbH, Kaiserslautern, Germany
{
daniel.keysers, faisal.shafait 
}
@dfki.de
Thomas M. Breuel
Technical University of Kaiserslautern, Germanytmb@informatik.uni-kl.de
Keywords:Document Image Analysis, Zone ClassificationAbstract:We describe a simple, fast, and accurate system for document image zone classification — an important sub-problem of document image analysis — that results from a detailed analysis of different features. Usinga novel combination of known algorithms, we achieve a very competitive error rate of 1.46% (
n
=
13811)in comparison to (Wang et al., 2006) who report an error rate of 1.55% (
n
=
24177) using more complicatedtechniques. The experiments were performed on zones extracted from the widely used UW-III database, whichis representative of images of scanned journal pages and contains ground-truthed real-world data.
1 INTRODUCTION
One important subtask of document image processingis the classification of blocks detected by the physicallayout analysis system into one of a set of predefinedclasses. For example, we may want to distinguish be-tween text blocks and drawings to pass the former toan OCR system and the latter to an image enhancer.For a detailed discussion of the task and its relevanceplease see e.g. (Wang et al., 2006).During the design of our block classification sys-tem we noticed that among the approaches we foundin the literature a detailed comparison of different fea-tures was usually not performed, and in particular wedid not find a comparison that included features asthey are typically used in other image classification orretrievaltasks. Inthispaperweaddressthisshortcom-ing by comparing a large set of commonly used fea-tures for block classification and include in the com-parison three features that are known to yield goodperformance in content-based image retrieval (CBIR)and are applicable to binary images (Deselaers et al.,2004). Interestingly, we found that the single featurewith the best performance is the Tamura texture his-togram, which belongs to this latter class. Another re-sult we transfer from experience in the area of CBIRis that often a histogram is a more powerful featurethan using statistics of a distribution like mean andvariance only. We show that the use of histograms im-proves the performance for block classification signif-icantly in our experiments. By combining a numberof different features, we achieve a very competitiveerror rate of less than 1.5% on a data set of blocks ex-tracted from the well-known University of Washing-ton III (UW-III) database. In addition to the data usedin prior work we include a class of ‘speckles’ blocksthat often occur during photocopying and for which acorrect classification can facilitate further processingof a document image. Figure 1 shows example block images for each of the eight types distinguished in ourapproach. We also present a very fast (but at 2.1% er-ror slightly less accurate) classifier, using simple fea-tures and only a fraction of a second to classify oneblock on average on a standard PC.
2 RELATEDWORKANDCONTRIBUTION
We briefly discuss some related work in this section,for a more detailed overview of related work in thefield of document zone classification please refer to(Okun et al., 1999; Wang et al., 2006). Table 1 showsan overview of related results in zone classification.Inglis and Witten (Inglis and Witten, 1995)
 
mathlogotexttabledrawinghalftonerulingspecklesFigure 1: Examples of document image block types distinguished in our approach.
 
Table 1: Summary of UW zone classification error rates from the literature along with the number of pages, zones and block types used. Note that an exact comparison between all error rates is not possible.
reference # pages # zones # types error [%](Inglis and Witten, 1995) 1001 13831 3 6.7(Liang et al., 1996) 979 13726 8 5.4(Sivaramakrishnan et al., 1995) 979 13726 9 3.3(Wang et al., 2000) 1600 24177 9 2.5(Wang et al., 2006) 1600 24177 9 1.5this work 713 13811 8 1.5present a study of the zone classification problemas a machine learning problem. They use 13831zones from the UW database and distinguish the threeclasses text, halftone, and drawing. Using sevenfeatures based on connected components and runlengths, the authors apply various machine learningtechniques to the problem, of which the C4.5 decisiontree performs best at 6.7% error rate.The review paper by Okun et al. (Okun et al.,1999) succinctly summarizes the main approachesused for document zone classification in the 1990s.The predominant feature type is based on connectedcomponents (see also for example (Liang et al.,1996)) and run-length statistics. Other features usedinclude the cross-correlation between scan-lines, ver-tical projection profiles, wavelet coefficients, learnedmasks, and the black pixel distribution. The mostcommon classifier used is a neural network.The widespread use of features based on con-nected components run-length statistics, combinedwith the simplicity of implementation of such fea-tures, led us to use these feature types in our exper-iments as well, comparing them to the use of featuresused in content-based image retrieval. Our CBIR fea-tures are based on the open source image retrievalsystem FIRE (Deselaers et al., 2004). We restrictour analysis for zone classification to those featuresthat are promising for the analysis of binary imagesas described in the following section. (The overallmost successful features in CBIR are usually basedon color information.)The most recent and detailed overview of theprogress in document zone classification and a veryaccurate system is presented in (Wang et al., 2006).The authors use a decision tree classifier and modelcontextual dependencies for some zones. In our work we do not model zone context, although it is likelythat a context model (which can be integrated in asimilar way as presented by Wang et al.) would helpthe overall classification performance. Wang et al.use 24177 zones extracted from the UW-III databaseto evaluate their approach. In our experiments weuse only 11804 labeled zones (plus 2007 additionalzones of type ‘speckles’) extracted from the UW-IIIdatabase because many zones occur in different ver-sions in the database. In Section 5 we further illus-trate this shortcoming and our approach to overcomeit. As the authors use 9-fold cross-validation to obtaintheir results, it might be possible that the error ratesthey present (the best result is an overall error rate of 1.5%) may be influenced positively by this fact, be-cause it is likely that instances of blocks of the samedocument occur in training and test set. In a simi-lar direction, Wang et al. use one feature that “usesa statistical method to classify glyphs and was exten-sively trained on the UWCDROM-III document im-age database.” It is not clear to us if this implies thatthe glyphs that occur in testing have also been used inthe training of the glyph classifier.We expand on the work presented in (Wang et al.,2006) in the following ways:
We include a detailed feature comparison includ-ing a comparison with commonly used CBIR fea-tures. It turns out that the single best feature isthe Tamura texture histogram which was not pre-viously used for zone classification.
Wepresentresultsbothforasimplenearestneigh-bor classifier and for a very fast linear classifierbased on logistic regression and the maximum en-tropy criterion.
We introduce a new class of blocks containingspeckles that has not been labeled in the UW-IIIdatabase. This typical class of noise is importantto detect during the layout analysis especially forimages of photocopied documents.
We present results for the part of the UW-IIIdatabase without using duplicates and achieve asimilar error rate of 1.5%.
We introduce the use of histograms for themeasurements of connected components and runlengths and show that this leads to a performanceincrease.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->