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Table Of Contents

INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE
1.2.1.The Microscope
1.2.2.Spontaneous Generation Vs Biogenesis
1.2.3.Fermentation
1.2.4.Germ Theory
1.2.5.Classical Laboratory Methods and Pure Cultures
1.2.6.Immunity
1.2.7.Medical Microbiology
1.2.8.Pharmaceutical Microbiology
1.2.9.Industrial Microbiology
1.2.10.Emergence of Molecular Biology
1.2.11.Emergence of Virology
1.2.12.Microorganisms as Geochemical Agents
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION : BACTERIAL CELLS
2.2. CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES
2.2.1.Shape
2.2.2.Size
2.2.3.Reproduction
2.2.4.Formation of Colony
2.2.5.Mutation
2.2.6.Motility
2.2.7.Food and Oxygen Requirements
2.2.8.Temperature Requirements
2.4. ORGANIZATION OF MICROBIAL CELLS
2.4.1.Types of Cells
2.5. ARCHAEOBACTERIA AND EUBACTERIA
2.5.1.Methanogenic Bacteria [Methanogens]
2.5.2.Extreme Halophiles
2.5.3.Thermoacidophiles
2.5.3.1 Thermoplasma
2.5.3.2 Sulfolobus
2.6. THE BACTERIAL CELLS
2.6.1.Typical Bacterial Cell
2.6.2.Capsules and Slimes
2.6.3.Flagella and Fimbria
2.6.3.1. Flagella
2.6.4.Cell Envelope
3.2.3. Cultural Characteristics
3.2.4. Metabolic Characteristics
3.2.5. Antigenic Characteristics
3.2.6. Genetic Characteristics
3.2.6.1. DNA Base Composition
3.2.6.2. Sequence of Nucleotide Bases in DNA
3.2.8. Ecological Characteristics
3.3.1. Difficulties Encountered in Classification of Microorganisms
3.3.2. Objectives of Classification
3.3.3. Genetic Methods of Classifying Microbes
(i) Genetic relatedness
3.3.3.1. Genetic Relatedness
3.3.3.2. The Intuitive Method
3.3.3.3. Numerical Taxonomy
3.3.4.Systematized Classification
3.3.4.1. Natural Classification
3.3.4.2. Phyletic* Classification
3.3.4.3. Linnean Binomial Scheme
3.3.4.5. Microscopic Examination
3.3.4.6. Cataloguing rRNA*
3.3.4.7. Computer Aided Classification
3.5. THE KINGDOM PROKARYOTAE
3.5.1.Actinomycetes
3.5.1.1. General Characteristics
3.5.1.2. Significance of Actinomycetes
3.5.1.3. Classification
3.5.1.4. Actinomycetes and Related Organisms
3.5.1.4.2. Genus
3.5.2.1. Salient Features
3.5.3.Rickettsia and Coxiella
3.5.4.Spirochaetes
IDENTIFICATION OF MICROORGANISMS
4.3. SELECTIVE AND DIAGNOSTIC MEDIA
4.3.1.Differential Media
4.3.1.1.Eosin Methylene Blue Agar [EMB-Agar]
4.6.2.Microscopy : The Different Instruments
4.6.2.1.Concepts
4.6.2.2.Microscope Variants
4.6.2.2.1.Bright-Field Microscope
4.6.2.2.5.Fluorescence Microscope
4.6.2.2.6.Electron Microscope
NUTRITION, CULTIVATION AND ISOLATION : BACTERIA- ACTINOMYCETES-FUNGI-VIRUSES
5.2.2.1.Binary Fission
5.2.2.3.The Lag Phase of Microbial Growth
5.2.2.4.Translational Periods Between Various Growth Phases
5.2.2.5.Synchronous Growth
5.2.2.7.Growth Determining Techniques
5.2.3. Isolation of Bacteria
(a) Selective and diagnostic media,
5.2.3.1.Selective and Diagnostic Media
5.2.3.3.Selective Media for Staphylococci
5.4.1.1.Asexual Reproduction
5.4.1.2.Sexual Reproduction
5.4.2. Industrial Importance of Fungi
5.4.2.1.Production of Wines and Beer
5.4.2.2.Production of Bakery Products
5.4.2.3.Production of Cheeses
5.5.1. Bacteriophages
5.5.2. Growth of Bacteriophages in the Laboratory
5.5.3. Bacteriophage Lambda : The Lysogenic Cycle
6.2.4. DNA and Chromosomes
6.2.5. DNA Replication
6.2.7. Flow of Genetic Information
6.2.8. Bacterial Transformation
6.2.9. Bacterial Transcription
6.2.10.Bacterial Translation
6.2.11.Bacterial Conjugation
6.2.12. Bacterial Transduction
(a) Generalized transduction, and
6.2.12.1. Generalized Transduction
6.2.12.2. Specialized Transduction
6.2.13. Bacterial Transfection
6.2.14. Phage Conversion
6.3. MICROBIAL VARIATIONS [GENETIC MANIPULATION IN MICROORGANISMS]
7.2. PHYSICAL METHODS
MICROBIAL CONTROL BY PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL METHODS
7.2.2.3.Pasteurization
7.2.2.4.Dry-Heat Sterilization
7.2.2.5.Filtration
7.2.2.7.Desiccation
7.2.2.9.1.Ionizing Radiation
7.3. CHEMICAL METHODS
7.3.1. Effective Disinfection—Fundamentals
7.3.2. Disinfectant—Critical Evaluation
7.3.2.1. Use-Dilution Tests
7.3.2.2. Filter Paper Method
7.3.3. Disinfectant Variants
7.3.3.1. Alcohols
7.3.3.2. Aldehydes
7.3.3.3. Chlorohexidine
7.3.3.4. Gaseous Chemosterilizers
7.3.3.5. Heavy Metals and Derivatives
7.3.3.6. Halogens
7.3.3.8. Oxidizing Agents
7.3.3.9. Phenol and Phenolics
7.3.3.10.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds [QUATS]
7.4. EXPERIMENTAL PARAMETERS INFLUENCING THE ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT ACTIVITY
7.4.2. Population Composition
7.4.3. Concentration of Antimicrobial Agent
7.4.4. Duration of Exposure
7.4.6. Local Environment
STERILITY TESTING : PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS
8.2. TEST FOR STERILITY : PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS
8.2.1.Membrane Filtration
8.2.2.1.Nutrient Broth
8.2.2.2.Cooked Meat Medium and Thioglycollate Medium
8.2.2.3.Sabouraud Medium
8.3. SAMPLING : PROBABILITY PROFILE
8.4. OVERALL CONCLUSIONS
IMMUNE SYSTEMS
9.1.1. Discrimination
9.1.2. Specificity
9.1.3. Anamnesis
9.1.4. Transferability by Living Cells
9.2.2. Active Immunity
9.2.4. Congenital Immunity
9.2.5. Herd Immunity
9.2.6. Humoral Immunity [or B-cell Mediated Immunity]
9.2.7. Local Immunity
9.2.8. Natural Immunity
9.2.9. Passive Immunity
9.3. DUALITY OF IMMUNE SYSTEM
9.4. IMMUNOLOGICAL MEMORY
9.5.1. Natural Resistance
9.5.1.1. Species Resistance
9.5.1.2. Racial Resistance
9.5.1.3. Individual Resistance
9.5.1.4. External Defense Mechanisms
9.5.2. Internal Defense Mechanisms
Internal Defense Mechanisms
9.5.3. Nonspecific Defense Mechanisms
9.5.3.1. Complement System
9.5.3.2. Phagocytosis
9.5.3.4. Interferons [IFNs]
MICROBIOLOGICAL (MICROBIAL) ASSAYS : ANTIBIOTICS–VITAMINS– AMINO ACIDS
10.1.INTRODUCTION
10.1.2.Principle
10.1.3.Methodologies
10.1.3.1. Cylinder-Plate Method (Method-A)
10.1.3.2. Turbidimetric (or Tube-Assay) Method (Method-B)
10.1.4.Present Status of Assay Methods
10.2.VARIANTS IN ASSAY PROFILE
10.2.1.Calibration of Assay
10.2.2.Precision of Assay
10.2.3.Accuracy of Assay
10.2.4.Evaluation of Assay Performance
10.3.TYPES OF MICROBIOLOGICAL (MICROBIAL) ASSAYS
10.3.1.Agar Plate Diffusion Assays (Method-A)
10.3.1.1. One-Dimensional Assay
10.3.1.2. 2D- or 3D-Assay
10.3.1.3. Dynamics of Zone Formation
10.3.1.4. Management and Control of Reproducibility
10.3.1.5. Measurement of Zone of Inhibition
10.3.1.6. Calibration
10.3.1.6.1. Standard Curves
10.3.1.6.2.2-By-2-Assay
10.3.2.Rapid-Reliable-Reproducible Microbial Assay Methods
10.3.2.1.Urease Activity
10.3.2.2.Luciferase Assay
10.4.RADIOENZYMATIC [TRANSFERASE] ASSAYS
10.4.1.Calibration
10.4.2.Non-Isotopic Modification
10.5.ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR MICROBIAL ASSAYS
(a) High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC),
10.5.1.High Performance Liquid Chromatography [HPLC]
10.5.2.Reverse-Phase Chromatography [RPC]
10.5.3.Ion-Pair (or Paired-Ion) Chromatography
10.6. EXAMPLES OF PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIAL ASSAYS
10.6.1. Antibiotics Assays
10.6.1.1. Standard Preparation and Units of Activity
10.6.1.2. Preparation of Standard Solution
10.6.1.3. Preparation of Sample Solution
10.6.1.4. Test Organisms
10.6.1.5. Preparation of Inoculum
10.6.1.6. Temperature Control
10.6.1.7. Spectrophotometer
10.6.1.8. Cylinder-Plate Assay Receptacles
10.6.1.9. Turbidimetric Assay Receptacles
10.6.1.10. Assay Designs
[A] Cylinder-Plate or Cup-Plate Method
[A.1] One-Level Assay with Standard Curve
[B] Turbidimetric or Tube Assay Method
10.7. ASSAY OF ANTIBIOTICS BY TURBIDIMETRIC (OR NEPHELOMETRIC) METHOD
10.7.1. Assay of Chlorotetracycline
10.7.2. Cognate Assays
10.7.3. Assay of Vitamins
10.7.3.1. Calcium Pantothenate
10.7.3.3. Vitamin B12 [or Cynocobalamin]
10.7.4. Assay of Amino Acids
GLOSSARY
Index
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Pharmaceutical Microbiology

Pharmaceutical Microbiology

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Published by Rizka Hannifa

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Published by: Rizka Hannifa on Dec 03, 2010
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