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Published by: reshmad on Dec 03, 2010
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Waste Management
Meaning Of Waste
Waste is exclusively human problem. Virtually every pound of natural resourceswe take from forests, mines, wells, aquifers, and earth ends up sooner or later in anunmanageable pile of trash with no place to go or in other forms of pollution.Waste are two major type
Solid waste
Liquid waste
What Is Solid Waste?
The sight of a dustbin overflowing and the stench rising from it, the all too familiar sights and smells of a crowded city. You look away from it and hold your noseas you cross it. Have you ever thought that you also have a role to play in the creationof this stench? That you can also play a role in the lessening of this smell and making this waste bin look a little more attractive if you follow proper methods of disposal of the waste generated in the house?
Since the beginning, humankind has beengenerating waste, be it the bones and other parts of animals they slaughter for their food or the wood they cutto make their carts. With the progress of civilization, thewaste generated became of a more complex nature. Atthe end of the 19th
century the industrial revolution saw the rise of the world of consumers. Not only did the air get more and more polluted but the earth itself becamemore polluted with the generation of nonbiodegradable solid waste. The increase in population and urbanization was also largely responsible for the increase in solid waste.1
Waste ManagementEach household generates garbage or waste day in and day out. Items that we nolonger need or do not have any further use for fall in the category of waste, and we tendto throw them away. There are differenttypes of solid wastedepending on their source.In today’s polluted world, learning the correct methods of handling the waste generatedhas become essential.Segregationis an important method of handling municipal solidwaste. Segregation at source can be understood clearly by representation. One of theimportant methods of managing and treating wastes iscomposting. As the cities aregrowing in size and in problems such as the generation of  plasticwaste, variousmunicipal waste treatment and disposal methodsare now being used to try and resolvethese problems. One common sight in all cities is therag picker who plays an importantrole in thesegregationof this waste.
Types of solid waste
Solid waste can be classified into different types depending on their source:a) Household waste is generally classified as municipal waste, b) Industrial waste as hazardous waste, andc) Biomedical waste or hospital waste as infectious waste.
Municipal solid waste
Municipal solid waste consists of household waste,construction and demolition debris, sanitation residue, andwaste from streets. This garbage is generated mainly fromresidential and commercial complexes. With risingurbanization and change in lifestyle and food habits, theamount of municipal solid waste has been increasing rapidly and its compositionchanging. In 1947 cities and towns in India generated an estimated 6 million tonnes of solid waste, in 1997 it was about 48 million tonnes. More than 25% of the municipalsolid waste is not collected at all; 70% of the Indian cities lack adequate capacity totransport it and there are no sanitary landfills to dispose of the waste.The existing landfills are neither well equipped or well managed and are not lined properly to protect against contamination of soil and groundwater .2
Waste ManagementOver the last few years, the consumer market has grown rapidly leading to products being packed in cans, aluminium foils, plastics, and other such nonbiodegradable items thatcause incalculable harm to the environment. In India, some municipal areas have bannedthe use of plastics and they seem to have achieved success. For example, today one willnot see a single piece of plastic in the entire district of Ladakh where the local authoritiesimposed a ban on plastics in 1998. Other states should follow the example of this regionand ban the use of items that cause harm to the environment. One positive note is that inmany large cities, shops have begun packing items in reusable or biodegradable bags.Certain biodegradable items can also be composted and reused. In fact proper handling of the biodegradable waste will considerably lessen the burden of solid waste that each cityhas to tackle.3

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