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Table Of Contents

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Basic Gasifier Types
5.3 Charcoal Gasifiers
5.4 Charcoal versus Biomass Fuels
5.5 The Crossdraft Gasifier
5.6 The Updraft Gasifier
5.7 The lmbert Downdraft Gasifier
5.7.1 Introduction
5.7.2 Description of the Downdraft (Imbert) Gasifier
5.7.3 Superficial Velocity, Hearth Load, and Gasifier Sizing
5.7.4 Turndown Ratio
5.7.5 Disadvantages of the lmbert Design
5.8.3 Unanswered Questions About the Stratified Downdraft Gasifier
5.8.4 Modeling the Stratified Downdraft Gasifier
5.9 Tar-Cracking Gasifiers
5.9.1 Introduction
5.9.2 Combustion of Tars
5.10 Summary
Gasifier Fabrication and Manufacture
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Materials of Construction
6.3 Methods of Construction
6.4 Sizing and Laying out the Pipes
6.5 Instruments and Controls
6.5.1 Temperature
6.5.2 Pressure
6.5.3 Gas Mixture
6.5.4 Automatic Controls
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Gas-Quality Measurements and Requirements
7.3 Description of Producer Gas and Its Contaminants
7.3.1 The Gas Analysis
7.3.2 Particulates
7.3.3 Tars
7.4 Gas Sampling
7.4.1 Sample Ports
7.4.2 lsokinetic Sampling
7.5 Physical Gas-Composition Testing
7.5.1 Raw Gas
7.5.2 Cleaned Gas
7.6 Chemical Gas Composition
7.6.1 Gas Samples for Chemical Analysis
7.6.3 Water Vapor Analysis
7.7 Analysis of Test Data
7.7.1 Mass Balances and Energy Balances
7.7.2 Flow Rate Characterization
7.8 Particle-Size Measurement
7.8.1 Typical Particle-Size Distributions
7.8.2 Sieve Analysis
7.8.3 Microscopic Size Analysis
7.8.4 Aerodynamic Size Analysis
7.8.6 Physical Size Analysis
Gas Cleaning and Conditioning
8.2 The Power Theory of Gas Cleanup
8.3 Gas Cleanup Goals
8.3.1 Gas Contaminant Characteristics
8.3.2 Typical Dirty Gas
8.3.3 Gas Cleanup Goals
8.3.4 Cleanup Design Target
8.4 Classification of Particles
8.5 Particle Movement and Capture Mechanisms
8.6 Dry Collectors
8.6.1 Gravity Settling Chambers
8.6.2 Cyclone Separators
8.6.3 Baghouse Filter
8.6.4 Electrostatic (Cottrell) Precipitators
8.7 Wet Scrubbers
8.7.1 Principles of Wet Scrubbers
8.7.2 Scrubber Equipment
8.7.3 Auxiliary Equipment
8.8 Disposal of Captured Contaminants
8.8.1 Char-Ash
8.8.2 Tar
8.8.3 Condensate
9.1 The Complete Gasifier System
9.2.1 Characteristics of Solids
9.2.2 Storage
9.2.3 Feeding Solids
9.2.4 Sealing Solid Flows
9.3.1 Importance of Gas-Moving System Design
9.3.3 Blowers
9.3.4 Ejectors
9.3.5 Turbochargers and Superchargers
9.4 Flares and Product-Gas Burners
9.4.1 Flares
9.4.2 Burners
Instrumentation and Control
10.1 The Need for Instrumentation and Control
10.2.1 Pressure Measurement
10.2.2 Gas Flow Measurement
10.2.3 Solid Flow Measurement
10.2.4 Temperature Measurements
10.3 Controls
10.3.1 Fuel-Level Controls
10.3.2 Pressure Controls
10.3.3 Temperature Controls
10.4 Computer Data Logging and Control
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Producer Gas for Transportation
11.3 Producer Gas for Electric Power and Irrigation
11.4 Gasifier Types Suitable for Shaft-Power Generation
11.5 Sizing the Gas Producer to the Engine
11.6 Engine Selection
11.6.1 Large-Vehicle Engines - Truck Engines up to 50 kW
11.6.2 Small Engines
11.6.3 Natural-Gas Engines
11.6.4 Diesel Engines
11.7 Cogeneration
11.8.2 Gas Mixers
11.8 Spark-Ignition Engine Conversion
11 -8.3 Power Time Lag
11.8.4 Engine Startup
11.8.5 Ignition Timing
11.8.6 Spark Plugs
11.9 Two-Cycle Engine Conversion
11 .I0 Diesel Engine Conversion
11.1 0.1 Diesel Operation with Producer Gas
11.10.2 Starting Diesel Engines
11.10.3 Throttling at Partial Load
11.1 1 Increasing Power from Producer-Gas-Fueled Engines
11 .I1 .I Mechanisms of Power Loss
11 .11.2 Engine Breathing
11 .11.4 Blowers and Superchargers
11.11.5 Other Methods for Increasing Producer Gas Power
11.1 2 Engine Life and Engine Wear
11.12.1 Engine Life Expectancy
11.12.2 Sticking Intake Valves
11.12.3 Oil Thickening and Contamination
11.1 2.4 TarlOil Accumulations
11.1 2.5 Engine Corrosion
11.1 2.6 Engine Warranty
11.1 3 Exhaust Emissions
11 .I 4 Other Devices for Producer-Gas Power Generation
11.14.1 Gas Turbines
11.1 4.2 Fuel Cells
Safety and Environmental Considerations
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Toxic Hazards
12.2.1 Carbon Monoxide
12.2.2 Creosote
12.3 Fire Hazards
12.4 Environmental Hazards
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Logistics Assessment
13.2.1 Gasifier Application
13.2.2 Equipment Selection Factors
13.2.3 Feedstock Supply
13.2.4 Regulations
13.2.5 Labor Needs
13.2.6 Final Logistics Considerations
References
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Handbook of Biomass Downdraft Gasifier Engine Systems

Handbook of Biomass Downdraft Gasifier Engine Systems

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Published by Orolless

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Published by: Orolless on Dec 03, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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10/31/2012

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