Instructional Material (A.V Aids)
Instructional aids should not be confused with training media. Educators generallydescribe
as any physical means that communicates an instructionalmessage to students. For example, the science teacher’s voice, printed text, videocassettes, interactive computer programs, part-task trainers, flight training devices or flight simulators, and numerous other types of training devices are considered trainingmedia.
, on the other hand, are devices that assist an science teacher in theteaching-learning process.Instructional aids are not self-supporting; they are supplementary training devices. Thekey factor is that instructional aids support, supplement, or reinforce.In general, the coverage of instructional aids in the first part of this chapter applies to aclassroom setting with one science teacher and several students. The discussion abouttypes of instructional aids begins with the most basic aids and progresses to the morecomplex and expensive aids. The last segment is about new training technologies whichmay apply to a typical classroom environment, as well as other training environments.While science teachers may become involved in the selection and preparation of instructional aids, usually they are already in place. Science teachers simply need to learnhow to effectively use them .
REASONS FOR USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS
In addition to helping students remember important information, instructional aids haveother advantages.When properly used, they help gain and hold the attention of students. Audio or visualaids can be very useful in supporting a topic, and the combination of both audio andvisual stimuli is particularly effective since the two most important senses are involved.Science teachers should keep in mind that they often are salesmen of ideas, and many of the best sales techniques that attract the attention of potential clients are well worthconsidering. One caution—the instructional aid should keep student attention on thesubject; it should not be a distracting gimmick.Clearly, a major goal of all instruction is for the student to be able to retain as muchknowledge of the subject as possible, especially the key points. Numerous studies haveattempted to determine how well instructional aids serve this purpose. Indications fromthe studies vary greatly—from modest results, which show a 10 to15 percent increase in retention, to more optimistic results in which retention is increasedby as much as 80 percent.Good instructional aids also can help solve certain language barrier problems. Consider the continued expansion of technical terminology in everyday usage. This, coupled withculturally diverse backgrounds of today’s students, makes it necessary for science