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Instructional Material

Instructional Material

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Published by tariqghayyur2

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Published by: tariqghayyur2 on Dec 03, 2010
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Instructional Material (A.V Aids)
Instructional aids should not be confused with training media. Educators generallydescribe
training media
as any physical means that communicates an instructionalmessage to students. For example, the science teacher’s voice, printed text, videocassettes, interactive computer programs, part-task trainers, flight training devices or flight simulators, and numerous other types of training devices are considered trainingmedia.
Instructional aids
, on the other hand, are devices that assist an science teacher in theteaching-learning process.Instructional aids are not self-supporting; they are supplementary training devices. Thekey factor is that instructional aids support, supplement, or reinforce.In general, the coverage of instructional aids in the first part of this chapter applies to aclassroom setting with one science teacher and several students. The discussion abouttypes of instructional aids begins with the most basic aids and progresses to the morecomplex and expensive aids. The last segment is about new training technologies whichmay apply to a typical classroom environment, as well as other training environments.While science teachers may become involved in the selection and preparation of instructional aids, usually they are already in place. Science teachers simply need to learnhow to effectively use them .
In addition to helping students remember important information, instructional aids haveother advantages.When properly used, they help gain and hold the attention of students. Audio or visualaids can be very useful in supporting a topic, and the combination of both audio andvisual stimuli is particularly effective since the two most important senses are involved.Science teachers should keep in mind that they often are salesmen of ideas, and many of the best sales techniques that attract the attention of potential clients are well worthconsidering. One caution—the instructional aid should keep student attention on thesubject; it should not be a distracting gimmick.Clearly, a major goal of all instruction is for the student to be able to retain as muchknowledge of the subject as possible, especially the key points. Numerous studies haveattempted to determine how well instructional aids serve this purpose. Indications fromthe studies vary greatly—from modest results, which show a 10 to15 percent increase in retention, to more optimistic results in which retention is increasedby as much as 80 percent.Good instructional aids also can help solve certain language barrier problems. Consider the continued expansion of technical terminology in everyday usage. This, coupled withculturally diverse backgrounds of today’s students, makes it necessary for science
teachers to be precise in their choice of terminology. Words or terms used in aninstructional aid should be carefully selected to convey the same meaning for the studentas they do for the science teacher. They should provide an accurate visual image andmake learning easier for the student.Another use for instructional aids is to clarify the relationships between material objectsand concepts. When relationships are presented visually, they often are much easier tounderstand. For example, the subsystems within a physical unit are relatively easy torelate to each other through the use of schematics or diagrams. Symbols, graphs, anddiagrams can also show relationships of location, size, time, frequency, and value. Bysymbolizing the factors involved, it is even possible to visualize abstract relationships.Science teachers are frequently asked to teach more and more in a smaller time frame.Instructional aids can help them do this. For example, instead of using many words todescribe a sound, object, or function, the science teacher plays a recording of the sound,shows a picture of the object, or presents a diagram of the function. Consequently, thestudent learns faster and more accurately, and the science teacher saves time in theprocess.
Use of Instructional Aids
Aids should be simple and compatible with the learning outcomes to be achieved.Obviously, an explanation of elaborate equipment may require detailed schematics or mockups, but less complex equipment may lend itself to only basic shapes or figures.Since aids are normally used in conjunction with a verbal presentation, words on the aidshould be kept to a minimum.In many cases, visual symbols and slogans can replace extended use of verbiage. Thescience teacher shouldInstructional aids should appeal to the student and be based on sound principles of instructional design.When practical, they should encourage student participation. They also should bemeaningful to the student, lead to the desired behavioral or learning objectives, andprovide appropriate reinforcement. Aids that involve learning a physical skill shouldguide students toward mastery of the skill or task specified in the lesson objective.Instructional aids have no value in the learning process if they cannot be heard or seen.Recordings of sounds and speeches should be tested for correct volume and quality in theactual environment in which they will be used. Visual aids must be visible to the entireclass. All lettering and illustrations must be large enough to be seen easily by the studentsfarthest from the aids.Colors, when used, should provide clear contrast and easily be visible. The usefulness of aids can be improved by proper sequencing to build on previous learning. Frequently,

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