Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more ➡
Standard view
Full view
of .
×
0 of .
Results for:
P. 1
Basic Statistics

# Basic Statistics

Ratings: 0|Views: 138|Likes:

### Availability:

See More
See less

12/03/2010

pdf

text

original

.. 1 ..Measures of Central Tendency
VariableA variable is a quantity which can vary from onevalue to another. The common examples of variablesare barometer readings, temperature, rainfall records,wages, heights etc. Variables are of two kinds.(i)Continuous variables: The quantities whichcan assume any numerical value within acertain range are called continuous variables.For example, if we consider the height H of achild at various ages, we observe that as thechild grows from 110 cm to 160 cm (say), hisheight takes all possible values within thisrange. Thus, the height H of a child at variousages is an example of a continuous variable.(ii)Discrete (or discontinuous) variables: Thequantities which cannot assume all possiblevalues are called discrete variables. Forexample, the number of children x in a familycan take any of the values 0, 1, 2, 3 , ..., butcannot be 2.1, 2.46, 3.783. Thus, the numberof children x is an example of a discretevariable.Constant: A quantity is a constant if it can assumeonly one value.
Frequency Distribution
A frequency distribution is defined when the followingtwo information are specified:(i)The value which the variable takes, and(ii)The number of times (i.e. frequencies) a valueis taken by a variable.Consider the marks obtained by 50 students in astatistics paper which are arranged according to theirroll numbers, the maximum marks allotted to thepaper being 100: 17, 71, 70, 14, 22, 00, 55, 59, 23,87, 93, 21, 22, 50, 87, 54, 70, 52, 87, 74, 63, 87, 28,04, 17, 49, 85, 81, 76, 52, 21, 86, 50, 87, 26, 87, 50,60, 32, 40, 30, 90, 27, 89, 81, 21, 14, 30, 37, 22.The data given above is in raw form, i.e. we cannotconclude anything. Such type of data is calledUngrouped data. When the data is arranged inascending or descending order of magnitude, thedata is said to be arranged in an array. Supposethese data is arranged in the intervals 0-10, 10-20,20-30, 30-40, 40-50, 50-60, 60-70, 70-80, 80-90, 90-100.This is done by the method called ‘tally method.’ Inthis method, we prepare a frequency table as follows:In the above example, 'marks' is the variable x andthe 'number of students' against the marks is calledfrequency f. Thus, the frequency of the class 50-60is 8. The value of the variable which is mid-waybetween the upper and lower limits is called mid-
Basic Statistics

.. 2 ..
point (or mid-value) of the class. In the aboveexample, the mid-values of the classes arerespectively 5, 15, 25, ..., 95.The cumulative frequency corresponding to a classis the total of all the frequencies upto and includingthat class. In the above example, the cumulativefrequency of the class 0-10 is 2 (since there is noclass above it). The cumulative frequencies areshown in the last column.For the table, the following two forms of the frequencydistribution may also be used.
Cumulative frequency'more than'
MarksNumber of studentsabove 902above 8013above 7018above 6020above 5028above 4030above 3034above 2044above 1048above 050
Cumulative frequency'less than'
MarksNumber of studentsunder 206under 3016under 4020under 5022under 6030under 7032under 8037under 9048under 10050
Measures of Central Tendency
The following are the five measures of centraltendency.1. Arithmetic mean2. Geometric mean3. Harmonic mean4. Median5. Mode
Arithmetic Mean (AM)
If X
1
, X
2
, X
3
... X
n
are the given n observations, thentheir AM, usually denoted by
X
, is given by
X  X X X n X n
n
=+ +=
+ +
1 2 3. . . . . . . .
Weighted Arithmetic Mean
In the calculation of simple average, each item ofthe series is considered equally important but theremay be cases where all items may not have equalimportance and some of them may be comparativelymore important than others. In such cases, properweightage is to be given to various items
—
theweights attached to each item beingproportional to the importance of the item in thedistribution. LetW
1
, W
2
, W
3
, ..., W
n
be the weights attached tovariable values
X X X
n
1 2 3
, , ,......,
respectively. Thenthe weighted arithmetic mean, usually denotedby
X
is given by
==
=
n1iin1iiiW
WXWXSometimes, to calculate AM, we employ a well-defined short-cut method which is explained in theexample below. In this method, we assume any valueof the variable as
assumed mean
and then find theactual mean using
ii
1XAhfuN
 = + 
where A:Assumed mean, h: Class size and
ii
xAuh
=

.. 3 ..
Ex. 1Two variables X and Y, assume the values X
1
= 2, X
2
=
–
5, X
3
= 4, X
4
=
–
8 and Y
1
=
–
3,Y
2
=
–
8, Y
3
= 10, Y
4
= 6, respectively.Calculate(1)
Σ
X(2)
Σ
Y(3)
Σ
XY(4)
Σ
X
2
(5)
Σ
Y
2
(6) (
Σ
X)(
Σ
Y)(7)
Σ
XY
2
(8)
Σ
(X + Y)(X
–
Y)Sol.(1)
Σ
X =
–
7(2)
Σ
Y = 5(3)
Σ
XY = 26(4)
Σ
X
2
= 109(5)
Σ
Y
2
= 209(6)(
Σ
X)(
Σ
Y) =
–
35 (using (1) and (2))(7)
Σ
XY
2
=
–
190(8)
Σ
(X + Y)(X
–
Y) =
Σ
(X
2

–
Y
2
) = 109
–
209 =
–
100, (using (4) and (e))Ex. 2Find the mean wage from the data given below.Wage (Amount in Rs.)8008208609009209801000Number of workers7 1419 25 20 105Sol.Let the assumed mean be A = 900, h = 20
( )
iiii1iii
xfx -Au=xA/hfiui800710053582014804568601940238900250009202020120980108044010005100525f100fu44
= =
Here A = 900, h = 20.
niii1
1MeanXAhf uN
=
 = = +  
4490020891.2100
 = + = 
Hence, mean wage = Rs. 891.2.With the help of this method, calculation of multiplyingtwo inconvenient numbers is avoided.
Median
The median is that value of the variable which dividesthe group in to two equal parts. One part comprisesall the values greater than and the other partcomprises all the values less than the median.
Calculation of MedianFor individual observationsS
tep 1: Arrange the observations x
1
, x
2
, ..., x
n
inascending or descending order of magnitude.Step 2: Determine the total number of observations,say, nStep 3: If n is odd, then median is the value of
th
21n
     +
observation. If n is even, then median isthe AM ofthe values of
th
2n
    
and
th
12n
     +
observations.For discrete frequency distribution.Step 1: Find the cumulative frequencies (c.f.)Step 2: Find2N, where
N
ii
=
=
1
Step 3: See the cumulative frequency (c.f.) justgreater than2Nand determine the correspondingvalue of the variable, which is the median.For grouped or continuous frequency distribution.Step 1: Obtain the frequency distribution.Step 2: Prepare the cumulative frequency columnand obtain N =
Σ
f
i
Find2N.

## Activity (1)

### Showing

AllMost RecentReviewsAll NotesLikes