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Fish

Fish

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02/09/2013

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Fish Diseases
, B. V. Sc. & A.H. 7
th
Sem.
Compiled and Edited By:
Suraj Subedi, Yanamani Nepal, Nirajan Bhandari
Page 1
Non-infectious disease
 
Disease caused by
 
Env
iro
nm
e
nt
alproble
m
 
 
N
u
t
ri
t
io
n
aldeficie
n
cy
 
G
e
n
e
t
ic disorder
Environmental diseaseAsphyxiation
 
C
ause : oxyge
n
deficie
n
cy i
n
wa
t
er
 
T
i
m
e : early
m
or
n
i
n
g co
mm
o
n
ly bu
t
O2deficie
n
cy occurs a
t
a
n
y
t
i
m
e
 
cloudy wea
th
er
 
dea
th
of a
n
algal bloo
m
 
 
po
n
d
t
ur
n
o
v
er
 
Oxyge
n
require
m
e
nt
:
v
aries species
t
o species
m
os
t
fis
h
>5
m
g/L (sui
t
able), <0.5
m
g/L (le
th
al)
t
rou
t
>8
m
g/L (sui
t
able), 3
m
g/L (le
th
al)
C
auses of low DO
-
algal bloo
m
a
n
d bulk respira
t
io
n
 
-
algal die offs a
n
d co
n
seque
nt
 deco
m
posi
t
io
n
 
-
addi
t
io
n
of ro
tt
i
n
g/deco
m
posi
n
gorga
n
ic
-
 
m
a
tt
er
-
 
h
ig
h
 
t
e
m
pera
t
ure
Symptoms
 
F
is
h
co
m
es
t
o
th
e surface
 
G
ulps air
 
G
a
th
ers a
t
wa
t
er i
n
le
t
 
 
F
is
h
dies wi
th
 
m
ou
th
ope
n
, opercula wide
 
 
Fish Diseases
, B. V. Sc. & A.H. 7
th
Sem.
Compiled and Edited By:
Suraj Subedi, Yanamani Nepal, Nirajan Bhandari
Page 2
T
reatment and control
 
A
era
t
io
n
by bea
t
i
n
g wa
t
er, swi
mm
i
n
g, boa
t
i
n
g
 
M
ec
h
a
n
ical aera
t
io
n
(
A
era
t
or, Blower)
 
W
a
t
er exc
h
a
n
ge (ou
t
bo
tt
o
m
deoxyge
n
a
t
ed wa
t
er a
n
d i
n
 fres
h
cool oxyge
n
a
t
ed wa
t
er)
 
A
djus
tm
e
nt
of 
t
e
m
p.
 
S
t
op fer
t
ilizi
n
g
Gas Bubble Disease
 
C
auses
-
super
-
sa
t
ura
t
io
n
of oxyge
n
i
n
wa
t
er
-
p
h
y
t
opla
n
k
t
o
n
bloo
m
 
 
>110 sa
t
ura
t
io
n
proble
m
a
t
ic, >140 sa
t
ura
t
io
n
fis
h
 kill
 
I
n
eye, ski
n
, fi
n
(
n
o
n
-
fa
t
al) a
n
d so
m
e
t
i
m
es i
n
 
h
ear
t
, li
v
er a
n
d brai
n
also (fa
t
al)
 
P
roble
m
: eye bli
n
d
n
ess due
t
o da
m
age of le
n
sa
n
d re
t
i
n
a, bac
t
erial seco
n
dary i
n
fec
t
io
n
due
t
odisrup
t
io
n
of bubble
Symptoms
 
De
v
elop
m
e
nt
of large ex
t
er
n
algas filled bubbles i
n
 
th
e eye,fi
n
, lip
 
V
isible ex
t
er
n
ally
 
Lose bala
n
ce due
t
o large gasfilled bubbles
 
F
is
h
swi
m
s a
t
a
n
a
n
gle of 45
0
 wi
th
 
h
ead poi
nt
i
n
g dow
n
ward
H
owever, fish remains activeand feed also
 
T
reatment and control
 
 
A
dd fres
h
wa
t
er or wa
t
erexc
h
a
n
ge
 
R
e
m
o
v
e excess gree
n
algae
 
S
t
op addi
n
g
n
i
t
roge
n
ousfer
t
ilizer
 
R
e
m
o
v
e
th
e fis
h
fro
m
po
n
ds a
n
d keep i
n
 
th
e
n
ew po
n
ds wi
th
appropria
t
e oxyge
n
le
v
el(sa
t
ura
t
io
n
) a
t
 
th
a
t
 
t
e
m
p.
T
emperature
 
F
is
h
are poikilo
th
er
m
s.
 
T
e
m
pera
t
ure se
n
si
t
i
v
e a
n
d pro
n
e
t
odisease
 
Ev
ery species
h
as op
t
i
m
u
m
ra
n
ge for
t
e
m
pera
t
ure eg. carps : 28
-
32
0
C
 
 
C
old wa
t
er species : 10
-
20
0
C
 
 
W
ar
m
wa
t
er species : 20
-
28
0
C
 (
t
e
m
pera
t
e)
 
W
ar
m
wa
t
er species : 28
-
35
0
C
 (
t
ropical)
 
Beyo
n
d
th
is ra
n
ge fis
h
ge
t
s
t
ressed
Effects
A
l
t
era
t
io
n
s i
n
 
t
e
m
pera
t
ure affec
t
s
 
M
e
t
abolic ra
t
e a
n
d co
n
seque
nt
 excre
t
ed
m
e
t
aboli
t
es
 
Oxyge
n
produc
t
io
n
a
n
d co
n
su
m
p
t
io
n
 
G
row
th
 
 
G
e
t
s
th
er
m
al s
h
ock a
n
d also dea
th
 w
h
e
n
 
th
ere is sudde
n
c
h
a
n
ge i
n
 
t
e
m
pera
t
ure by 3
-
4
0
C
because fis
h
 ca
n¶t
 
t
olera
t
e
th
is differe
n
ce a
n
d
 
I
m
por
t
a
nt
ly, defe
n
si
v
e
m
ec
h
a
n
is
m
sa
n
d a
nt
ibody for
m
a
t
io
n
 
 
 
Fish Diseases
, B. V. Sc. & A.H. 7
th
Sem.
Compiled and Edited By:
Suraj Subedi, Yanamani Nepal, Nirajan Bhandari
Page 3
M
anagement and control
 
S
h
ould
n
o
t
place fis
h
i
n
 
t
oo cold or
h
o
t
wa
t
er
 
F
ollow proper s
t
ocki
n
g procedure
 
P
ro
v
ide s
h
ade i
n
 
h
o
t
wea
th
er
 
C
u
t
off 
v
ege
t
a
t
io
n
arou
n
d i
n
cold wea
th
er
 
W
a
t
er exc
h
a
n
ge
H
ydrogen Ion concentration
 
pH sui
t
able ra
n
ge for fis
h
: 6.5
-9
 
 
F
is
h
ge
t
s s
t
ressed/died beyo
n
d
th
ese ra
n
ge
 
pH 4 ± acidic dea
th
poi
nt
, pH 11 ± alkali
n
e dea
th
poi
nt
 
 
M
a
n
y
t
oxic subs
t
a
n
ces beco
m
es
m
ore
t
oxic a
t
 
h
ig
h
or low pH le
v
els
 
G
row
th
a
n
d reproduc
t
io
n
ceases beyo
n
d op
t
i
m
u
m
ra
n
ge
 
I
rri
t
a
t
io
n
of ski
n
a
n
d gill a
t
low pH
 
G
ill da
m
age a
t
low pH
 
C
or
n
ea a
n
d le
n
s da
m
age a
t
 
h
ig
h
pH
Nutritional diseases
 
de
v
elops as a resul
t
of 
-
 
deficie
n
cy (u
n
der
n
u
t
ri
t
io
n
)
-
 
excess (o
v
er
n
u
t
ri
t
io
n
)
-
 
i
m
bala
n
ce of 
n
u
t
rie
nt
s prese
nt
i
n
 
th
eir food
-
 
Disease sig
n
s de
v
elop o
n
ly w
h
e
n
supply of 
v
i
t
a
m
i
n
s a
n
d
m
i
n
erals falls below cri
t
ical le
v
el
Disease caused nutritional deficiency
C
racked head
 
 
C
ause:
V
i
t
a
m
i
n
 
C
deficie
n
cy
 
S
ig
n
s
 
C
racked
h
ead
 
h
e
m
orr
h
age be
n
ea
th
 
h
ead
 
defor
m
ed body
 
Loss of appe
t
i
t
e
 
T
rea
tm
e
nt
 
 
1 g/kg of feed for 5
-7
days
Aflatoxicosis
 
C
aused by afla
t
oxi
n
, a ki
n
d of 
m
yco
t
oxi
n
 
 
produced by fu
n
gi
 Aspergillus flavus
a
n
d
 Aspergillus parasiticus
 
F
ou
n
d i
n
oil seed crops eg.
C
o
tt
o
n
seed,pea
n
u
t
 
m
eal, cor
n
, w
h
ea
t
, soybea
n
, fis
h
 
m
eal, feed (
m
ai
n
source of i
n
fec
t
io
n
 
t
o fis
h
)
 
G
e
t
s i
n
fec
t
ed w
h
e
n
feed co
nt
a
m
i
n
a
t
ed wi
th
 afla
t
oxi
n
is ea
t
e
n
by
th
e fis
h
 
 
F
ry are
m
ore suscep
t
ible
th
a
n
adul
t
s
F
actors that increase the production of aflatoxins in feeds
 
e
nv
iro
nm
e
nt
al
t
e
m
pera
t
ures > 2
7°C
(80
°F
)
 
h
u
m
idi
t
y le
v
els > 62%
 
m
ois
t
ure le
v
els i
n
 
th
e feed > 14%
 
I
m
proper s
t
orage

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