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cp_solarcar

cp_solarcar

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Published by Joey Dirt

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Published by: Joey Dirt on Dec 04, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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Build Your Own 
Solar CarSolar Car
Teach…build…learn…
renewable Energy! 
Page 1 of 1
 
Background 
Not only is the sun a source of heat and light, it’s asource of electricity too! Solar cells, also calledphotovoltaic cells, are used to convert sunlight toelectricity. Solar cells are used to provideelectricity all kinds of equipment, from calculatorsand watches to roadside emergency phones andrecreational vehicles.
Solar panels are becoming common on many homes.
Solar cells are most commonly made from silicon,the same material used to make computer chips.Silicon is one of the Earth’s most commonelements, and is a major component of sand andmany kinds of rocks. A solar cell is built like asandwich, with two layers of silicon separated by athin layer of insulating material. All three layerswork together to convert sunlight into electricity.When sunlight falls onto the solar cell, it producesa small electric charge. Like a battery, the chargeis positive on one side of the cell, and negative onthe other. A wire connects the two sides of thecell, allowing electricity to flow. This flow, orcurrent, of electricity can be used to power a smalllight bulb, turn an electric motor, or recharge abattery.Solar cells are often used in locations where thereisn’t any electricity and where electricity is neededin small amounts. In such cases, solar cells areusually connected to batteries, allowing electricityto be stored for use during times when the sunisn’t shining.A single solar cell is able to produce only a smallamount of electricity. But solar cells can beconnected together on a multi-cell panel toproduce larger amounts of electricity. As withbatteries, the more cells that are connected to oneanother, the greater the current of electricity thatcan be produced.
1
Solar panels can produceenough electricity to power satellites, recreationalvehicles, and equipment for other applicationswhere electricity is used in large amounts.For this project, you will be using the electricityfrom solar panels to power a small car. Yourchallenge will be to build a solar car that travels asfast and straight as possible.
A completed solar car.
 
Build It! 
These step-by-step instructions provide you with aplan for making a basic solar car. If you can think of ways to improve the design of your car, trythem out. Experiment with the materials.
1
Solar cells connected in series (in a long chain, positive tonegative, etc.) will increase the voltage of the panel. Solarcells connected in parallel (all their positive terminals to onewire, and all their negative terminals to another wire) willincrease the current, or amperage of the panel. In most largecommercial panels, the individual cells are connected bothways, with rows of cells in series to raise the voltage of thepanel, and then those rows connected to each other inparallel, to raise the amperage.
 
Build Your Own 
Solar CarSolar Car
Teach…build…learn…
renewable Energy! 
Page 2 of 2
 
Substitute parts to try to make the car lighter andfaster. Keep a record of your design improvementsas you go.
Materials
The tools and materials for making a solar car.
 
Order a Solar Car Kit:
 SunWind Solar Industries1-866-248-5350 (toll-free)Web site: http://www.sunwind.ca/  
 
The Solar Car Kit should contain the followingmaterials:
2 solar panels, with contacts
2 wooden axles
4 screw eyes
5 wheels (2 large, 3 small)
4 black rubber tires
2 elastic bands
1 motor shaft pulley
1 alligator clip test lead
2 cm clear vinyl tubing
1 electric hobby motor
1 self-adhesive motor clip
1 brass paper fastener
Fine sandpaper
1 piece of foam board (24 cm by 7 cm)
 
Tools and Other Materials
Gather together the following tools and materials:
Hot glue gun with glue sticks
Scissors
Retractable utility knife
Metal ruler
Pliers
Roll of clear tape
A. Construct the Body
1. Using the utility knife, cut the foam boardinto three pieces — one measuring 20 cmby 7 cm, and two measuring 2 cm by 7 cm.Use the metal ruler to guide your cuts.2. Glue the two smaller foam board pieces tothe large foam board piece as shown in theillustration below.3. Using a ruler, carefully mark the positionsof the screw eyes on the two smaller piecesas shown in the illustration below.
Dimensions of the foam board pieces for the body of thesolar car.
 
Build Your Own 
Solar CarSolar Car
Teach…build…learn…
renewable Energy! 
Page 3 of 3
 
4. Turn the screw eyes into the foam boardpieces. Be sure the screw eyes penetrateboth layers of foam board.
Turn the screw eyes firmly into the foam board.
5. Slip an axle through the screw eyes tocheck their alignment. The axle should beparallel to the end of the foam board. If necessary, adjust the screw eyes.
B. Mount the Wheels
1.
Slip a rubber tire onto each of the two largewheels, and two of the small wheels. Thesmallest wheel will be used later.
2.
With scissors, cut the vinyl tubing into smallsections approximately 5 mm in length.These will be used as spacers on the car’saxles (see diagram).
3.
Test the fit of the wheels and axles. Thewheels should grip the axles firmly. If thewheels cannot be pressed onto the axles, trysanding the ends of the axles to reduce theirthickness slightly, and check again for fit.
 
If necessary, sand the end of the axle toobtain a good fit with the wheel.
 
Mount the axles and wheels of the solar car.
4. Assemble the rear axle as shown in theillustration. Do this by slipping the axlethrough the screw eyes, then adding thespacers followed by the drive pulley (thethird small wheel) and wheels. You mayneed to sand the axle a little to allow thedrive pulley to slide on.
The rear axle with its drive pulley.
5. Add the front axle with its wheels andspacers, as shown in the illustration.6. At this point, check your car to see howwell it rolls. Put the car on the floor andgive it a gentle push. Make sure it rollseasily and in a fairly straight line. Adjustthe axles slightly to get a better alignment,if necessary. If the screw eyes seem loose,carefully place a drop of hot glue where thescrew eyes come through the foam board tohold them in position.

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