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Systematic Material Selection for the SuperLight-Car’s Body-in-White

Systematic Material Selection for the SuperLight-Car’s Body-in-White

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Published by Manoj Kumar Panda
These are various magazines uploaded for current reference of Engineers
These are various magazines uploaded for current reference of Engineers

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Published by: Manoj Kumar Panda on Dec 04, 2010
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SyStematic materialSelection for the Superlight-car’S Body-in-White
I th ramwrk  th SuprLight-Car prjct, a tam  th Istitut ür Kratahrzug RWTH Aach Uivrsity (ika) has dvlpd a matrial slcti mthdlgy,which supprts a icit allcati  dirt matrials t idividual vhicl bdycmpts i th arly stag  th dvlpmt prcss. Th tl is a gd rsurcr th gir t crat irst ccpts i ivativ multi-matrial dsig. I th d,th prjct csrtium built up a hardwar bdy-i-whit, dmstratig a wight rducti  37 %, i cmparis t a rrc bdy, which was basd  thVW Gl V. Th rigial wight savig gal was thus clarly xcdd.
new LIghtweIght desIgnConCepts
Lightweight design is an important factorto reduce the exhaust gas emissions of vehicles driven by internal combustionengines since the vehicle weight isdirectly related to the energy consump-tion. In order to achieve weight reductionsfar beyond the existing level, differentboundary conditions have to be consid-ered. In addition to materials, which werenot used by vehicle manufacturers, newmanufacturing methods and joining proc-esses must be developed and tested. Fur-thermore, economic boundary conditionsand a holistic life cycle assessment (LCA)must be taken into account.New body lightweight concepts usingalternative materials and particularly com-binations of them are being more stronglyconsidered than what has already beenimplemented in series production in therecent past,
. One key to super light-weight constructions is the multi-materialdesign. Here for each individual part of the body a material is selected, whichmeets the requirements with the lowestpossible weight.The change-over to new constructionmethods implicates that vehicle manufac-turers and suppliers have to acquire newknowledge of the application of certainmaterials and processes. Especially in thecase of a concept engineer, this knowl-edge is very important to achieve a start-ing point for new vehicle concepts veryquickly. This feature points out the needfor a material selection methodology,which is presented in the following.
A material selection tool assists the engi-neer in the early concept phase as a deci-sion support for assigning different materi-als to individual components of the body.Based on the idea that physical require-ments, which are imposed on a componentor assembly, are superposed with the prop-erties a material provides, a recommenda-tion is derived from the calculation of thedeviation between requirements and prop-erties and thus serves as preferred materialchoice for construction and simulation.Criteria of particular importance like cost,environmental sustainability and finite-ele-ment (FE) calculation may be includedinto the selection,
.The method consists of five essential steps:classification of componentrequirementsclassification of material propertiessuperposing criteria for the selection of a suitable material for a certaincomponent:::
dIpL.-Ing. ChrIstIan sahr 
was Scitiic Assistat i th BdyDpartmt ad is w Chi egir  th Istitut ür Krat-ahrzug (ika)  RWTH AachUivrsity (Grmay).
dIpL.-Ing. Lutz Berger 
is Scitiic Assistat i th BdyDpartmt  th Istitut ür Krat-ahrzug (ika)  RWTH AachUivrsity (Grmay).
dIpL.-Ing. MICha LeseMann 
is Grup Ladr Dyamic Simulatii th Bdy Dpartmt  th Istitut ür Kratahrzug (ika) RWTH Aach Uivrsity (Grmay).
dIpL.-Ing. peter urBan 
was Ladr  th Bdy Dpartmt th Istitut ür Kratahrzug (ika)ud is w Ladr Saty  Frschugsgsllschat Kratahr-ws mbH Aach (ka) (Grmay).
dr.-Ing. dIpL.-CheM. MartIn goede 
was Ladr  th SuprLight-Carprjct ad is Ladr Vhicl Light-wight Dsig  Vlkswag GrupRsarch i Wlsburg (Grmay).
Currt bdy-i-whit dvlpmt trds
05I2010 Vlum112
inclusion of additional criteria such ascost, production and joining aspectsuse of the proposals in a body conceptand revision.
requIreMents for CoMponentsand asseMBLIes
From the numerous requirements,which are imposed on components orassemblies, six criteria particularly rele-vant in the early concept phase havebeen chosen and form the basis of thetool:energy absorptionstructural integritystatic stiffnessnoise, vibration and harshness (NVH)formabilitysurface finish.::::::::Energy absorption, structural integrityand static stiffness are three requirements,which are closely interdependent. Theyare determined by different factors suchas crash concept and component geome-try and have to be defined depending onthe assembly like a specification. Due todifferent studies at ika and the expertknowledge of the working group of theSuperLight-Car (SLC) project, where,among others, representatives of sevenEuropean OEMs exchanged experiences,an evaluation matrix for stiffness require-ments has been generated and incorpo-rated into the material selection tool. Theexperience and the knowledge of thedevelopers play also an important roleregarding the remaining factors NVH,formability and surface finish, as theyevaluate the requirements.
shows theregistration and presentation of theserequirements in the program interface,which has been programmed for inputand output.
CreatIon of a dataBase
Materials are evaluated according to thesame criteria, which were determined bythe engineers for components and assem-blies,
. The evaluation of the propertiesis determined by material data providedby the manufacturer as well as by addi-tional information about surface qualityand a simulation database owned by ika.
CoMparIson of CoMponent requIreMents wIth the dataBase
The step of superposing componentrequirements and material propertiestakes place via the calculation of the devi-ation using the classical method of leastsquares. Here, the weighting factors areincluded, which helps the engineer toemphasise criteria of particular relevance.The result is a numerical value, whichdescribes the suitability of a material inthe sum of all requirements and weight-ings. The material selection tool repre-sents the result in a top 10 list includingthe deviation in a bar chart,
.In the next step, additional criteria suchas cost, availability of simulation data,manufacturing processes, joining informa-tion and corrosion properties areincluded. These criteria are classifiedusing different methods and may addi-tionally be selected. As a result, materialsare excluded, which are suitable in physi-cal terms but do not (yet) meet all neces-sary demands in the practical application.
MethodICaL desCrIptIonof MaterIaL propertIes
The methodical description of materialproperties represents the most importantelement for the successful application of the material pre-selection methodology. Itensures that proposals generated in theearly concept phase are also applicablewith high probability in a final body con-cept or a mass production body-in-white.For the description of the properties, thesame criteria like the requirement evalua-tion of the components have to be ana-lysed. Individual physical criteria for the
Bdy part rquirmt diiti
Matrial slcti mthdlgy r bdy parts

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