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The 2D Image-Based Anthropologic Measurement By Using Chinese Medical Acupuncture And Human Body Slice Model

The 2D Image-Based Anthropologic Measurement By Using Chinese Medical Acupuncture And Human Body Slice Model

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Published by ijcsis
Human body anthropometric measurement is widely used in daily life and has become an indispensable item for people and garment manufactures. Two-dimensional image-based anthropometric measurement system provides another choice to make anthropometric measurement alternative to traditional and three-dimension methods. These measurement systems are attractive because of their lower cost and easier to use. Although these systems have appeared in this type of application, most systems require the user to wear as little as possible for reducing the errors which come from garments in the measurement, and furthermore the measurement equipments are not easy available at anywhere and the setup are always complex. This paper presents an approach with fewer constraints and more simplified operation, and has the performance as good as manual measurement. In this approach, the Chinese medicine acupuncture theory is used to locate the position which measurement concerned and replace the manual marking or other feature extraction methods. For circumferences measurement, the human body slice model is supplied to approach the circumference shapes and used the piecewise Bezier curve to approximate the circumference curve. At the final, a compensation system of garment thickness is employed to amend the measurement data, which are obtained through the direct measuring of subject wearing clothes, to ensure the accuracy. Through of these methods, the subjects for measurement are not required for wearing as little as possible and the results of experiments also shows that the approach is quite comparable to traditional measurement methods.
Human body anthropometric measurement is widely used in daily life and has become an indispensable item for people and garment manufactures. Two-dimensional image-based anthropometric measurement system provides another choice to make anthropometric measurement alternative to traditional and three-dimension methods. These measurement systems are attractive because of their lower cost and easier to use. Although these systems have appeared in this type of application, most systems require the user to wear as little as possible for reducing the errors which come from garments in the measurement, and furthermore the measurement equipments are not easy available at anywhere and the setup are always complex. This paper presents an approach with fewer constraints and more simplified operation, and has the performance as good as manual measurement. In this approach, the Chinese medicine acupuncture theory is used to locate the position which measurement concerned and replace the manual marking or other feature extraction methods. For circumferences measurement, the human body slice model is supplied to approach the circumference shapes and used the piecewise Bezier curve to approximate the circumference curve. At the final, a compensation system of garment thickness is employed to amend the measurement data, which are obtained through the direct measuring of subject wearing clothes, to ensure the accuracy. Through of these methods, the subjects for measurement are not required for wearing as little as possible and the results of experiments also shows that the approach is quite comparable to traditional measurement methods.

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The 2D Image-Based Anthropologic Measurement by UsingChinese Medical Acupuncture and Human Body Slice Model
 
Sheng-Fuu Lin
Institute of Electrical Control EngineeringNational Chiao Tung UniversityHsinchu, Taiwan(ROC)sflin@mail.nctu.edu.tw
Shih-Che Chien
Institute of Electrical Control EngineeringNational Chiao Tung UniversityHsinchu, Taiwan(ROC)Shihche.chien@gmail.com 
Kuo-Yu Chiu
Institute of Electrical Control EngineeringNational Chiao Tung UniversityHsinchu, Taiwan(ROC)Alvin_cgr@hotmail.com
 Abstract
—Human body anthropometric measurement is widelyused in daily life and has become an indispensable item for peopleand garment manufactures. Two-dimensional image-basedanthropometric measurement system provides another choice tomake anthropometric measurement alternative to traditional andthree-dimension methods. These measurement systems areattractive because of their lower cost and easier to use. Althoughthese systems have appeared in this type of application, mostsystems require the user to wear as little as possible for reducingthe errors which come from garments in the measurement, andfurthermore the measurement equipments are not easy availableat anywhere and the setup are always complex. This paperpresents an approach with fewer constraints and more simplifiedoperation, and has the performance as good as manualmeasurement. In this approach, the Chinese medicineacupuncture theory is used to locate the position whichmeasurement concerned and replace the manual marking orother feature extraction methods. For circumferencesmeasurement, the human body slice model is supplied toapproach the circumference shapes and used the piecewise Beziercurve to approximate the circumference curve. At the final, acompensation system of garment thickness is employed to amendthe measurement data, which are obtained through the directmeasuring of subject wearing clothes, to ensure the accuracy.Through of these methods, the subjects for measurement are notrequired for wearing as little as possible and the results of experiments also shows that the approach is quite comparable totraditional measurement methods.
 Keywords- anthropometric measurement; Chinese medicine acupuncture; garment thickness
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 A For long time ago, people knew how to use tools to takea measurement of human body, stature, lengths, andcircumferences, and use these anthropometric data formanufactory product, garment designed, statistic…etc.Nowadays, the anthropologic measurement is more widelyused than before and become an indispensable item in humanlife. With the rapid development of internet worldwide, theconsumption pattern has been changed. The virtual shop onlineis a novel type of shopping platform that the customer canmake a purchase at anytime, anywhere, and no distance limitthought internet network. Hence, the method foranthropometric measurement without complex setting and noexperience required is necessary.In traditional anthropometric measurement methods, themeasurement can be done by using a simple instrument such astape and without complex measurement pre-setting. Theanthropometric data can be classified into two types: lineardistance and circumference. The linear part is defined as thedistance between two anatomical landmarks. Thecircumference part is defined as the length that can closearound the part at predefined location. Through the use of manual measurements by domain experts, combined withprecise measurement devices, an accurate model of humanbody and its measurement data can be obtained [1]. Althoughthe traditional anthropometry measurement is easy andconvenient to use, the traditional measurement relies on manualoperations that are inefficient and prone to errors.2D image-based anthropometric measurement methodsadopt two or more photographic to do the anthropometricmeasurement. Generally, the camera must be set and calibratedbefore capturing image. Through image process and geometrictransformation, the anthropometric measurement data can beobtained from captured images. Meunier and Yin [2] proposedan anthropometric measurement system that can generate bodymeasurements from two-dimension images. Their systemcomprised two synchronized and calibrated cameras thatcaptured two images: front and side. Six anthropometricmeasurement data (neck circumference, chest circumference,hip circumference, waist circumference, stature, and sleevelength) can be measured and compared with manualmeasurement by using tape for efficient evaluation. Hung et al.[3] used geometric shapes (ellipse and rectangular) toapproximate the shape of critical part circumference. The
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 8, November 201020http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
ellipse shape was used to approximate neck, wrist, and palmcircumferences, and the major and minor axes length wereobtained from the front and side views. The combination of arectangle and an ellipse was used to approximate the chestcircumference, and with the calculation of perimeter the chestcircumference can be obtained. Although, 2D image-basedmethods can be used for anthropometric measurement, thecomplicated pre-setting, camera setting and calibration, and toomuch manual operations make it not easy for people to use.There have been significant hardware and softwaredevelopment in laser scanning technique during the last twodecades. Nowadays, the 3-D laser scanning technique makes itpossible to digitalize the complete surface of human body andprovides much richer information about the body shape thanthe traditional anthropometric measurements [4]. CAESAR,which stands for Civilian American and European SurfaceAnthropometry Resource, is the first large scale 3-Danthropometry survey project [5]. This approach provides astandard model of digitalized human body shape and opens upopportunities to extract new measurements for quantifying thebody shape. The first attempt in processing 3-D anthropometricdata for analyzing the body shape is to extract traditionalanthropometric measurements from the scanned data [6].Although working with the 3-D surface data has the advantageof being able to perform repeated measurements without thesubject being present, the 3-D scanning equipment is notavailable in anytime and anywhere and the collected 3-Dscanning data still needs complicated analysis to calculatehuman body anthropometric data. Furthermore, the 3-D humanbody scanning data would possibly touch off privacy rightbecause of its rich and detail information of human body shape.This paper describes an approach to make ananthropometric measurement with fewer constraints, no high-price measurement instruments and complicated pre-setting.The Chinese medicine acupuncture theory, which has adistinctive way to locate the acupuncture points on human body,is used to fast locate the position of critical parts. The humanbody slice model accessed from the slice shape analysis of 3-Dscanning data at critical part is applied to approximate thecircumference shape. The fuzzy inference system is adopted toevaluate the influence of garment for anthropometricmeasurement, and the compensation system is applied tocorrect the measured data. The objective of this paper is tocompare the accuracy and precision of measurements madefrom 2D images of human with those of highly trainedanthropometric expert [2].This paper is organized as follows. Section II provides a 2Dimage-based anthropometric measurement that used two sideimages, front and side, which captured by camera, and thehuman body slice model is supplied to approximate the criticalcircumference shape. In section III, the compensation system,including garment thickness estimation and measurementcompensation, is proposed. The experimental results anddiscussion are showed in section IV and section V respectively.Section VI concludes this paper.
Figure 1. The flowchart of 2-D image-based anthropometric measurement.
II.
 
2D
IMAGE
-
BASED ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENT
 In this section, the method of 2D image basedanthropometric measurement is provided, and includes systemdescription, image preprocessing, Chinese medicineacupuncture theory for position locating, and human body slicemodel. At the first, system description is to descript themeasurement instruments and the requirements of system.Secondly, image preprocessing is used to process the imagescaptured from camera and acquire the information to lateranalysis. Thirdly, the Chinese medicine acupuncture theory isadopted to locate the critical position because of its distinctiveacupuncture point locating method of human body. Afterlocating the critical position, the 2D anthropometric data can beobtained by direct measurement. In order to acquire thecircumference, the human body slice model is used toapproximate the circumference shape. The flowchart of thissystem illustrated in Fig. 1.
 A.
 
System description
The system under review is a PC-based system andcomprised of one Fuji F40 color digital camera (1280 x 960pixels) and a white backdrop. The camera is set on tripod withabout one meter off the ground, and dual-axis bubble levels ontripod help to keep the camera level. The system captures frontand side images of objects standing with some requiredpostures. In the front view, the object stand with their armsstraight and abducted about 45 degree angles from body, andthe legs straight and slightly abducted. In the side view, theobject stand with their arms straight and close to body, and thelegs straight and slightly abducted. In both views, the object isrequired for all fingers closing together without bending, eyeslooking forward, no glove, and no shoes. The requirement of palm is in order to measure the width of four fingers (forefinger,middle finger, ring finger, and little finger), which can be usedfor computing the spatial resolution and locating position andwill be described in next paragraph and Section II.
. Fig. 2shows the required postures of object in two views.In this paper, the system is assumed to know theanthropometric data (stature, weight, and width of four fingers)of individual at the beginning. Through the knownanthropometric data, the Body Mass Index (BMI) can becalculated and applied for rough classification of human body.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 8, November 201021http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
Figure 2. The postures of front and side view.
The spatial resolution method, the ratio for direct mapping of pixel to actual length, is used to replace the camera calibrationfor simplification. By that way, the actual length of object canbe calculated if the pixels belong to object length in the imageis knew. Since the actual width of four fingers is known, thespatial resolution of system can be obtained by counting thepixels belong to width of four fingers in image.
 B.
 
System description
The purposes of this part are to extract the human bodyshape from captured image and label the skin regions, wherewithout clothes covered. To extract the correct human bodyshape is very important for 2D anthropometric measurement,because the error at the extracted human body shape will beamplified in final result of anthropometric data. The extractionof human body shape is performed by automatic imagesegmentation [7][8], which uses color edge extraction andseeded region growing (SRG) to do image segmentation. Thepurpose of SRG is to merge the part of the same homogeneousregion. It is also possibility that some regions are actually partof the same homogeneous region but have been split becausethe initial given seeds for them are different. Hence, theselected region seed should represent the distinguishingcharacter of the corresponding region. For our application, thecentroids of head, limbs, and body trunk are good as the seedsfor object generation. So we chose six centriods of head, rightand left hand (palm), body trunk, and right and left foot (sole of foot) as seeds for region growing. Except for the centriod of body trunk, the regions for seed selected are all belong to skinregion. For this reason, the skin detection method developed byAlbiol et al. [8] is used to extract skin color pixels and medianfilter is applied to eliminate the isolated pixel. Through theconnected component labeling method, the skin region can belabeled as head, right and left hand (palm), and right and leftfoot (sole of foot). The centriod of body trunk is defined as themass center of triangle which vertices are the centriods of head,right hand, and left hand. Fig. 3(a) shows the edges of capturedfront image by performing the Sobel edge detector and Fig. 3(b)shows the obtained skin area. By performing the SRG, thehuman body mask, Fig. 3(c), can be acquired.In order to access the spatial resolution described in sectionII.
 A
, the pixel belong to four fingers width must be counted.The definition of four-finger width is the width of four closedfingers at the position of second forefinger knuckle and Fig. 4illustrates the four-finger width. Actually, the correct position
Figure 3. The segmentation of the body from the background. (a) edges (b)skin area (c) human body mask Figure 4. Illustrate the definition of four-finger width.
of second knuckle of forefinger is hard to recognize, especiallyin silhouette. Hence, the four-finger width is calculated for theaverage width at the restricted region around second knuckle of forefinger.There are two steps to extract the width of four fingers in2D image. The first step is to rotate the right hand skin regionto horizontal with the rotation angle, which is defined as theangle between the axis of right hand skin region and horizontalaxis of image. The second step is to make a histogram of horizontal right hand skin region, and the average width forfour-finger width
FWavg
, can be defined as:1()-1
bavgia
FWPiba
=
=+
(1)-2(-)() , ()33
mnmnanroundbnroun
= + = +
(2)where
P
(
i
) denotes the histogram value at the position
i
,
n
is theposition of fingertip of middle finger, and
m
is the positionwhere has the maximum histogram value. Take Fig. 5(a) as anexample, the measured data
n
and
m
are 40 and 72, and the data
a
and
b
can also be calculated as 51 and 61 respectively.
C.
 
Chinese medicine acupuncture theory for locating position
Acupuncture is originated in China and has a long history.Along with the accumulation of clinical experience,acupuncture treatment has become a developed theory.Acupuncture is the procedure of inserting filiform needles intovarious acupuncture points on the body to relieve pain or for
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 8, November 201022http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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