(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol.
Spatial Scalability is related to resolution of each frame.Typically, the base layer includes a reduced resolution of eachcoded frame. The output of base layer encoding is a lowresolution sequence while encoding both base layer andenhancement layers creates a high resolution output.Meanwhile, spatial enhancement layers is coding deferenceinformation among the picture of up scaled reference layer andhigher resolution of original picture increase a resolution of coded pictures 
Temporal scalability can be used to create a high framerate. Generally, it is related to the number of frames per second(fps) in video stream. Temporal enhancement layers encodeadditional pictures to increase the frame rate of reproducedvideo. However, it is not allowed to use those pictures asreference for spatial enhancement layers 
With Quality Scalability, the substream creates a completebitstream with a spatio-temporal resolution and lower fidelity.Quality Scalability is often related to signal to noise Ratio(SNR) and it is mainly related to visual quality layers of thecoded video by different bitrates .
Fine Grain Scalability
Fine Grain Scalability (FGS) increases the quality of sequence in small steps. A FGS application streams videothrough network that may be suitable to scale coded streambeing match with available bit rate . The main new featuresof SVC are as follow:
Variable block-size motion-compensated predictionwith the block size down to 4x4 pixels;
Quarter-pixel motion vector accuracy;
Multiple reference pictures for motion compensation;
Bi-directional predicted picture as a reference formotion prediction;
Intra-picture prediction in the spatial domain;
Adaptive deblocking filter within the motion-compensated prediction loop;
Small block-size transformation (4x4 block transform);
Enhanced entropy coding methods: Context-AdaptiveVariable-Length Coding (CAVLC) and Context-Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding (CABAC)).
TABLE I. C
OMPARISON OF ABOVE MENTIONED
MPEG-2 H.263 MPEG-4 Visual H.264 SVC
Data type Object basecoding schemeObject base widerange of circuit andpacket switchednetworksRectangular videoframes and fieldsRectangular videoframes and fieldsRectangular videoframes and fieldsCompressionefficiencyLoss efficiency Loss efficiency Medium High HighMotioncompensationMinimum block size8 × 8 8 × 8 8 × 8 4 × 4 4 × 4
CODEC’s improvements increase extremely along with
multimedia developments. Considering above mentioned
CODECs’ capabilities, each CODEC has been adapted by the
newest version of production at its own time. Therefore,MPEG-2 and H.263 stand on object base scheme where lossCompression efficiency is another issue.In MPEG-4 Visual and H.264 macroblock-based motioncompensation is the core technology of video coding whiletransformation and quantization of residual data is considered. Although, the compression efficiency of MPEG-4 Visual ismedium in comparison with H.264 and SVC, still it worksbetter than both H.263 and MPEG-2 with loss efficiency.SVC is able to create high compression efficiency codingwhich is the main requirement of online applications. In case,when a lower resolution or bandwidth stream is needed toreach the network and a lower performance device is aimed asmall part of the decoded stream would be sent without anyfurther processing. Current small stream would be easier todecode and result a video with low resolution. In this case, theencoded video stream would adapt itself to the bandwidth of the transport channel and to requirements of target device. Thisis the characteristic of Scalable Video CODEC.IV.
Although traditional systems for transmitting video datamay have some scalable capability, but they still have somechallenges due to less coding efficiency and complex decoder.Furthermore, different types of scalability may be combinedand create large number of representations with differentspatio- temporal resolutions. In this case, one single bit streamis able to support the bit rates. However, SVC supports is usingmultiple dimension scalable modes to support flexiblebitstream. Otherwise, the main problem of SVC is that: how toguarantee user perceived quality (UPQ) which means that howto guarantee user satisfaction with video quality in videoservices. This is considered as future work .