(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 8, November 2010
Feedback delay challenge
One of the important challenges is the feedback delay andcaused by increasing the group size, because of the limitationof the bandwidth size the RTCP reporting interval increasedwhich decreases the significance and value of the feedback, andthen the feedback reports either send rarely or not at all [3, 4, 8,9].
The group size could be known if every member stores acount of distinct for every member it heard during the sessionusing the unique Synchronization Source identifier (SSRC)found in the RTP header [3, 4, 8, 9].
Multicasting RRs to the whole group (bandwidth effect)
Every member in the session group will multicast RRs(Receiver Report) to all other which are not senders and thatcauses a load at every member processing and Congestion willhappen because of members increase then RR increase also[4,8, 9, 10].
Initial/bye flood challenge
If many members join/leave the session at the same time, aflood of join/Bye packets will happen and congestion in thenetwork may occur, especially at members who have lowbandwidth links [3, 4, 5, 8, 9].El-Merakby tried to explain that the normal case for RTCPfeedback reports are multicast mainly for receivers to calculatethe group size and thus compute their RTCP reporting interval,and the suggested solution is saying that the members do notneed to compute the whole size of the multicast group and RRsare not multicast, and to divide the big session to many groups.The proposed structure is called S-RTCP, and shown in Fig 1,explains how members organize dynamically in a multi-levelhierarchy of local regions.
Figure 1. Structure of El-Merakby scheme .
Each region has an aggregator (AG). Each member sendsthe RR feedback to its AG which gathers and aggregatesstatistics from these reports which is passed to a manager or toanother AG level. Additional statistics are computing by themanager to evaluate the transmission quality and to estimatethe regions which suffer from congestion. Time-to-Live (TTL)field in the IP header is used by the scheme to build the multi-level hierarchy with locally scoped regions [4, 8, 9].The following are the advantages of using the scheme inlarge RTCP groups [4, 8, 9]:
Resolving the storage scalability problem: Members donot need to store the state of the distinct member in thegroup because they are in a different small group size.
Timely reporting of feedback reports: Feedback reportsbecome more useful because the number of membersbecame less.
Effective use of the bandwidth: the formation of localregions where RRs are not multicast but are sent withlimited scope and not global scope decrease the numberof RRs.
Decrease in the number of redundant reports: the totalnumber of redundant RRs, which used to be multicast,is decreased, because the measurements in RRs areaggregated into AGRs summarizing the quality of thereceived data.In the other side, another researcher was interesting in thesame area, Julian from University of Cambridge. He publishedan article with title “An Extensible RTCP Control Framework for Large Multimedia Distributions” in 2003. Julian thoughtthat is two serious challenges with RTCP and they are: thegrowing of using unidirectional and asymmetric broadcastarchitectures, and the second challenge: per-receiver RTCPreporting frequency diminishes prohibitively due to thebandwidth-sharing algorithm .
The growing deployment of unidirectional and asymmetric broadcast architectures challenge
In RTP/RTCP, the data and control share a many-to-manycommunication channel, such as that provided by IP multicast. The unidirectional and asymmetric broadcastarchitectures have problems with these issues; instead thechannel allows not only the bidirectional flow of communication from sources to receivers and vice-versa, butalso direct receiver-to-receiver communication over a singlechannel [2, 11].
Per-receiver RTCP reporting frequency diminishes prohibitively due to the bandwidth-sharing algorithm
RTCP is keeping the frequency of reports inverselyproportional to the number of members. And because of thatRTCP institutes a bandwidth-sharing algorithm that divides theresources of the control channel among members’ group. Thestandard bandwidth-sharing algorithm used by RTCP expectsthat as groups grow in size, the frequency of individualfeedback reports will decrease . This problem is the samechallenge that introduced by El-Merakby, 1998 with achallenge title Feedback delay challenge .To solve these challenges, two new schemes are devisedthat are complementary to the existing RTCP feedback algorithm and influence the unique characteristics of summaries to efficiently scale the feedback of the unicastbackchannel for large groups. The two schemes that influencesummarization to scale the backchannel: biasing andhierarchical aggregation .