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Performance Analysis Of Nonlinear Distortions For Downlink MC-CDMA Systems

Performance Analysis Of Nonlinear Distortions For Downlink MC-CDMA Systems

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Published by ijcsis
Multi-carrier (MC) scheme became a promising technique for its spectral efficiency and robustness against frequency-selective fading. Multi-carrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) is a powerful modulation technique that is being considered in many emerging broadband communication systems. MC-CDMA combines the advantages of multi-carrier modulation with that of code-division multiple access (CDMA) to offer reliable high-data-rate downlink cellular communication services. The MC-CDMA signals are a superposition of many narrow-band signals and, as a result suffer from strong envelope fluctuations which make them very prone to nonlinear effects introduced by high power amplifier (HPA). HPA introduces conversion in both amplitude and phase. In this paper we have focused on the signals at the output of the nonlinear distorting device. A practical technique for determining the bit error rate (BER) of downlink MC-CDMA systems using binary phase- shift keying (BPSK) modulation scheme. The results are applicable to systems employing a coherent demodulation with maximal ratio combining (MRC) and equal gain combining (EGC).
Multi-carrier (MC) scheme became a promising technique for its spectral efficiency and robustness against frequency-selective fading. Multi-carrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) is a powerful modulation technique that is being considered in many emerging broadband communication systems. MC-CDMA combines the advantages of multi-carrier modulation with that of code-division multiple access (CDMA) to offer reliable high-data-rate downlink cellular communication services. The MC-CDMA signals are a superposition of many narrow-band signals and, as a result suffer from strong envelope fluctuations which make them very prone to nonlinear effects introduced by high power amplifier (HPA). HPA introduces conversion in both amplitude and phase. In this paper we have focused on the signals at the output of the nonlinear distorting device. A practical technique for determining the bit error rate (BER) of downlink MC-CDMA systems using binary phase- shift keying (BPSK) modulation scheme. The results are applicable to systems employing a coherent demodulation with maximal ratio combining (MRC) and equal gain combining (EGC).

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PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF NONLINEARDISTORTIONS FOR DOWNLINKMC-CDMA SYSTEMS
Labib Francis Gergis
 Misr Academy for Engineering andTechnology Mansoura, Egypt drlabeeb@yahoo.com
 
 Abstract-
Multi-carrier (MC) scheme became apromising technique for its spectral efficiencyand robustness against frequency-selectivefading. Multi-carrier code division multipleaccess (
 MC-CDMA
) is a powerful modulationtechnique that is being considered in manyemerging broadband communication systems.MC-CDMA combines the advantages of multi-carrier modulation with that of code-divisionmultiple access (
CDMA
) to offer reliable high-data-rate downlink cellular communicationservices. The
 MC-CDMA
signals are asuperposition of many narrow-band signals and,as a result suffer from strong envelopefluctuations which make them very prone tononlinear effects introduced by high poweramplifier (
 HPA
).
 HPA
introduces conversion inboth amplitude and phase. In this paper we havefocused on the signals at the output of thenonlinear distorting device. A practicaltechnique for determining the bit error rate(
 BER
) of downlink
 MC-CDMA
systems usingbinary phase- shift keying (
 BPSK 
) modulationscheme. The results are applicable to systemsemploying a coherent demodulation withmaximal ratio combining (
 MRC 
) and equal gaincombining (
 EGC 
).
 Keywords
- MC-CDMA systems, high poweramplifiers, nonlinear distortions, maximal ratiocombining (
 MRC 
), equal gain combining (
 EGC 
).
1. INTRODUCTION
Future wireless radio networks need tomake efficient use of the frequency spectrum byproviding high capacity in terms of number of users allowed in the system. Due to theadvantages of spectrum efficiency, interferenceimmunity, high data rate, and sensitivity toselective fading channels. Multi-carrier Coded-division multiple-access (MC-CDMA) appears tobe a recommended candidate for future radiocommunication systems. It exploits theadvantages of spread spectrum and theadvantages of multi-carrier systems [1].MC-CDMA signals are considered assuperposition of many narrow-band signals, andas a result suffer from strong envelopefluctuations which make them very prone tononlinear effects introduced by high poweramplifiers (
 HPA's
) [2].Power amplifiers (PA's) are vitalcomponents in many communication system. Thelinearity of a PA response constitutes animportant factor that ensures signal integrityand reliable performance of the communicationsystem. High power amplifiers in microwaverange suffer from the effects of amplitudemodulation to amplitude modulation distortion(AM/AM), and amplitude modulation to phasemodulation distortion (AM/PM) [3], duringconversions caused by the HPA amplifiers. Thesedistortions can cause intermodulation (IM)distortion, which is undesirable to systemdesigns. The effects of AM/AM and AM/PMdistortions degrade the bit error rateperformance of a communication channel.
The amplitude and phase modulationdistortions are minimized using linearizationmethod. The linearization method requiresmodeling the characteristics of the amplitudedistortion and phase distortion of the HPA.A Saleh model [4] for traveling wave tube(TWT) amplifiers, has been used to providethe linearization method and applied tomeasured data from HPA that characterize
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 8, November 201063http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
the distortion caused by the HPA. Themeasured data provides a performancecurve indicating nonlinear distortion. Theforward Saleh model is a mathematicalequation that describes the amplitude andphase modulation distortions of the HPA
.The BER analysis of MC-CDMA based onconsidering different kinds of assumptions, sofar, have been dedicated in numerous researchesin advance .Performance enhancement of MC-CDMAsystem through, space time trellis code (STTC)site diversity with multiple input multiple output(MIMO) technique was introduced in [5].A method efficiently suppressing multipleaccess interferences (MAI) in MC-CDMA toimprove the system capacity was proposed in [6].The performance of fully loaded downlinkMC-CDMA systems in the presence of residualfrequency offset (RFO) in multipath Rayleighfading channels with minimum mean squareerror (MMSE) equalizers was presented in [7].The performance analysis of MC-CDMAcommunication systems over Nakagami-m fadingchannels was considered in [8].A downlink MC-CDMA system using binaryphase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation schemeand maximal ratio combining (MRC) infrequency-selective Rician fading channels wasillustrated in [9].The aim of this paper is to analyze theinfluences of the effects of the nonlineardistortions introduced by HPA in downlink MC-CDMA over Rayleigh fading channel for mobilesatellite communication systems. The structureof this paper is as follows. The basic principlesmodel of transmitter system is presented anddescribed in more details in section 2. Section 3summarizes the HPA baseband models, which ismost commonly used in mobile satellitecommunication systems. Subsequently in section4, the channel model is described. The receivermodel will be described in section 5.Performance analysis of linearized downlinkMC-CDMA based signal is carried out for bothEGC and MRC.
2.
 
MC-CDMA TRANSMITTERMODEL
The input data symbols, a
 m
 [k] 
, are assumedto be binary antipodal where
 k
denotes the
 k
 th
 bit interval and m denotes the
 mth
user. It isassumed that a
 m
 [k] 
takes on values of -1 and +1with equal probability.As shown in Figure. 1, a single data symbol isreplicated into
 N 
parallel copies. Each branch of the parallel stream is multiplied by a chip from aspreading code of length
 N 
. Each copy is thenbinary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulated to asubcarrier spaced apart from its neighboringsubcarriers by
 F/T 
 b
Hz where
 F
is an integernumber. An MC-CDMA signal consists of thesum of the outputs of these branches.As illustrated in Figure. 1, the transmittedsignal for MC-CDMA system corresponding tothe
 kth
data bit of the
 mth
user is [10]
 
 N-1
S
 m
(t)
=
 
 m
 [i] a
 m
[k] 
·
 
i=0
cos ( 2π f 
 c
 t
+
 
2πi (F/T 
 b
 )t
·
 
 P
 b
(t-kT 
 b
 )
(1)
 m
 [i] 
 
Є {
-1 , 1 }
where
 m
 [0] 
,
 m
 [1] 
, ……,
 m
 [N-1] 
represent thespreading code of the
 mth
user and
 P
 b
(t)
is anunit amplitude pulse that is non-zero in theinterval [
0,T 
 b
].
 Fig. 1 Transmitter Model of MC-CDMASystem
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 8, November 201064http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
3. NONLINEARITY EFFECTS ONMC-CDMA SIGNAL
 
The response of broadband poweramplifiers can have precarious memoryeffect. The influence of a memory-lessnonlinearity
U(.)
can be decomposed into anamplitude distortion (AM/AM) and a phasedistortion (AM/PM), which are bothfunctions of the amplitude of the input signalto HPA. The complex signal
S
 o
(t)
at theoutput of HPA, can be defined as [11]
S
 o
(t)
=
U{S
 m
(t)
 }
 
=
 A
(
S
 m
(t)
) .
 exp (
 j
 
Φ
│S 
 m
(t)
│)) S 
 m
(t)
(2)
 A
[
S
 m
(t)
] and
Φ
[
S
 m
(t)
] are the correspondingAM/AM and AM/PM characteristicsrespectively, both dependent exclusively on
 x
,which is the input modulus to HPA, they aredefined as Saleh Model for HPA [12]:
 A
[
 x
] =
α
 a
 
 x
 
 / 
1 +
β
 a
 
 2 x
 
Φ
[
 x
] =
α
Φ
 x
 
 / 
1 +
β
Φ
 
 2 x
 
(3)The values of 
α
 a
,
β
 a
,
α
Φ
and
β
Φ
are defined in[3].The corresponding AM/AM and AM/PMcurves so scaled are depicted in Fig. 2.While for solid state power amplifier types(SSPA's) AM/AM and AM/PM can be defined as
 A
[
 x
] =
 x
 
 / 
[1 + (
 x
/ A
 max
)
 2p
]
1/2p
 
Φ
[
 x
] = 0
(4)
 A
 max
is the maximum output amplitude, and
 p
 is a constant controls the smoothness of thetransition.
 A
 max
= max (
A
[
 x
]
) =
α
 a
 
 A
 s
 
 / 
2
(5)where
 A
 s
 
is the input saturation amplitudeequals 1
 
√  
 
β
 a
 The HPA operation in the region of itsnonlinear characteristic causes a nonlineardistortion of a transmitted signal, thatsubsequently results in increasing the bit errorrate (BER), and the out-of-band energyradiation ( spectral spreading ).Fig. 2. AM/AM and AM/PM characteristics of the Saleh model For TWTA HPA' sThe operating point of HPA is defined byinput back-off (
 IBO
) parameter whichcorresponds to the ratio of saturated outputpower (
 P
 o
), and the average input power (
 P
 av
)[13] :
 IBO
 dB
= 10 log
10
(
 P
 o
 P
 av
) (6)
 
The measure of effects due to the nonlinearHPA could be decreased by the selection of relatively high values of 
 IBO
 The output of HPA defined in Fig. 3, isexpressed as
 b
 y
=
 A
[
U
x
]
e
 j( 
α
 
 x+ Φ[Ux])
 
(7)where the input-output functional relation of theHPA has been defined as a
 transfer function
.Hence in order to obtain linearization, it may benecessary to estimate a discrete inversemultiplicative function HPA
-1
[.] such that
 b
 x
=
 b
 y
.
HPA
-1
[
 y
]
(8)An alternative expression for the AM/AMdistortion in (7), convenient for the theoreticalformulation of the linearizer, is obtained by
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 8, November 201065http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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