Channel Estimation Algorithms, Complexitiesand LTE Implementation Challenges
Md. Masud Rana
Department of Electronics and Communication EngineeringKhulna University of Engineering and TechnologyKhunla, Bangladesh
The main purposes of the long term evolution(LTE) are substantially improved enduser throughputs,low latency, reduced user equipment (UE) complexity,high data rate, and significantly improved user experiencewith full mobility. LTE uses single carrier-frequencydivision multiple access (SC-FDMA) for uplinktransmission and orthogonal frequency division multipleaccess (OFDMA) for downlink transmission. The majorchallenges for LTE terminal implementation are efficientchannel estimation (CE) method as well as equalization.This paper discusses the basic CE techniques and futuredirection for research in CE fields. Simulation resultsdemonstraters that the linear mean square error (LMMSE)CE method outperforms the least square (LS) CE methodin term of mean square error (MSE) by more than around3dB. Hence, based on a given LTE systems resources andspecifications, a appropriate method among the presentedmethods can be applied for OFDMA systems.
LS, LMMSE, LTE, OFDMA
.I. INTRODUCTIONThe wireless evolution has been stimulated by anexplosive growing demand for a wide variety of highquality of services in voice, video, and data. Thisrigorous demand has made an impact on current andfuture wireless applications, such as digital audio/videobroadcasting, wireless local area networks (WLANs),worldwide interoperability for microwave access(WiMAX), wireless fidelity (WiFi), cognitive radio, and3rd generation partnership project (3GPP) long termevolution (LTE) , . LTE uses single carrier-frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) foruplink transmission and orthogonal frequency divisionmultiple access (OFDMA) for downlink transmission, . SC-FDMA utilizes single carrier modulationand frequency domain equalization, and has similarperformance and essentially the same overallcomplexity as those of OFDMA system. Theseadvanced applications in which the transmitted signaldisperses over the time and the frequency domains,show the need for highlydeveloped signal processingalgorithms. In particular, one of the main challenges inthe mobile communication is a wireless channel thatsuffers from numerous physical impairments due tomultipath propagation, interference from other users orlayers, and the time selectivity of a channel [5-9].Many CE techniques have already been proposed forthe LTE OFDMA systems. The simple least square (LS)algorithm, which is independent of the channel model,is commonly used in CE [10-14]. But the radio channelis time-variant; hence a method has to be found in orderto perform estimation in a time-varying channel. Theminimum mean-squared error (MMSE) estimate hasbeen shown to be better than the LS estimate for CE inwireless communication systems . The importantproblem of the MMSE estimate is its highcomputational complexity, which grows exponentiallywith inspection samples . In , a low rank approximation is applied to a linear MMSE (LMMSE)estimator that employs the correlations of the channel.To further improve the system performance, Wienerestimation has been investigated . Although itexhibits the best performance among the existing linearalgorithms, it requires accurate knowledge of secondorder channel statistics, which is not always feasible at amobile receiver. Also, this scheme requires highercomplexity.This paper outlines the developments of the LTEOFDMA systems, and highlights some upcomingchallenges, where advanced signal processing couldplay a important role in resolving them. Specifically, weinvestigates various types of CE techniques such as LS,and LMMSE CE methods and find out which is themore efficient one. The performance is measured interms computational complexity, and mean square error(MSE). Simulation results shows that the LMMSE CEalgorithm outperforms the existing LS CE in term of MSE by more than around 3dB. Hence, based on agiven LTE systems resources and specifications, aappropriate method among the presented methods canbe applied.The rest of the paper is organized as follows. We givea brief overview of the wireless communication systemsin section II. The classification of CE is described insection III. The LS and LMMSE CE methods aredescribes in section IV and its performance are analyzedin section V. In section VI, we highlight the challengesfor LTE terminal implementation. Finally, someconclusions are made in section VII.The following notations are used in this paper: boldface lower and upper case letters are used to representvectors and matrices respectively. Superscripts
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 8, November 201071http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500