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Therapeutic Diet Prediction for Integrated Mining of Anemia Human Subjects using Statistical Techniques

Therapeutic Diet Prediction for Integrated Mining of Anemia Human Subjects using Statistical Techniques

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Published by ijcsis
Chronic disease anemia [1] occurs when blood doesn’t have enough hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from lungs to the rest of our body. All the body parts need oxygen. Anemia can starve our body of the oxygen it needs to survive. Possible causes of anemia include low vitamin B12 or folic acid intake and some chronic illnesses. But the most common cause is not having enough iron in blood which needs to make hemoglobin. This type of anemia is called iron deficiency anemia. Data Mining is widely used in database communities because of its wide applicability. One major application area of Data Mining is in therapeutic diet prediction. There are several chronic diseases which can be prevented using nutritive food. This paper presents association and correlation between anemia human subject and its prevention through diet nutrients. The role of diet in preventing and controlling iron deficiency is significant. Due to changes in dietary and life style patterns anemia can become catastrophic, so by predicting proper and sufficient diet nutrients for individuals, we can reduce the impact of anemia on human subjects.
Chronic disease anemia [1] occurs when blood doesn’t have enough hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from lungs to the rest of our body. All the body parts need oxygen. Anemia can starve our body of the oxygen it needs to survive. Possible causes of anemia include low vitamin B12 or folic acid intake and some chronic illnesses. But the most common cause is not having enough iron in blood which needs to make hemoglobin. This type of anemia is called iron deficiency anemia. Data Mining is widely used in database communities because of its wide applicability. One major application area of Data Mining is in therapeutic diet prediction. There are several chronic diseases which can be prevented using nutritive food. This paper presents association and correlation between anemia human subject and its prevention through diet nutrients. The role of diet in preventing and controlling iron deficiency is significant. Due to changes in dietary and life style patterns anemia can become catastrophic, so by predicting proper and sufficient diet nutrients for individuals, we can reduce the impact of anemia on human subjects.

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Therapeutic Diet Prediction for Integrated Mining of Anemia Human Subjects using Statistical Techniques
Sanjay Choudhary
Department of Mathematics & Computer ScienceGovt. Narmada P.G. MahavidyalayaHoshangabad, India
 Kamal Wadhwa
Department of Mathematics & Computer ScienceGovt. Narmada P.G. MahavidyalayaHoshangabad, India
 Abha Wadhwa
Department of Computer Science & ApplicationGovt Girls P.G. CollegeHoshangabad, India
 Anjana Mishra
Department of Mathematics & Computer ScienceGovt. Narmada P.G. MahavidyalayaHoshangabad, India
 Abstract
:-
Chronic disease anemia [1] occurs when blooddoesn
t have enough hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a protein in red
blood cells that carries oxygen from lungs to the rest of ourbody. All the body parts need oxygen. Anemia can starve ourbody of the oxygen it needs to survive. Possible causes of anemiainclude low vitamin B
12
or folic acid intake and some chronicillnesses. But the most common cause is not having enough ironin blood which needs to make hemoglobin. This type of anemiais called iron deficiency anemia.Data Mining is widely used in database communities becauseof its wide applicability. One major application area of DataMining is in therapeutic diet prediction. There are severalchronic diseases which can be prevented using nutritive food.This paper presents association and correlation between anemiahuman subject and its prevention through diet nutrients. Therole of diet in preventing and controlling iron deficiency issignificant. Due to changes in dietary and life style patternsanemia can become catastrophic, so by predicting proper andsufficient diet nutrients for individuals, we can reduce theimpact of anemia on human subjects.
 Keywords
:-
Chronic Disease, Anemia, Diet Nutrients, Clinical System, Correlation, Data Mining
 
I.
I
NTRODUCTIONData Mining is referred to as Knowledge Discovery fromdatabases[5], a process of nontrivial extraction of implicit previouslyunknown and potentially useful information from databases, haswide application in information management concepts, queryprocessing, decision making, process control, statistical analysis etc.[4], [5] An association rule mining is an important process in datamining, which determines the correlation between items belongingto transaction database [6], [7].Chronic disease is a disease[10] that is long lasting for recurrent.Anemia also becomes a chronic disease if it is not cured timely. It isprolonged, do not resolve spontaneously and are rarely curedcompletely. If anemia results from a diet which is low in iron, ironrich foods or iron pills may be the doctor suggests. Data Miningtechnology can be utilized for improving the quality of health careof an individual. There is need for lowering the cost of health carefacilities along with quality based treatment especially for poorsections of our society.Health care organization need to lower cost, raise quality and stillremain competitive. IT can be used for patient health care. In the ITdriven society the role of IT in health care is well established. Wecan use data mining techniques for analyzing patient data togenerate predictions and knowledge which can in turn be used forfast and better clinical decision making. Medical data mining dealswith large amount of data, there fore we need data miningtechniques, which can explore hidden patterns in the data sets of themedical domain. These patterns can be utilized for clinical diagnosisand prediction.The available raw medical data are widely distributed,heterogeneous in nature and voluminous, therefore these data needto be collected in an organized form. This collected data can be thenintegrated to form as a basis for prediction of nutrients chronicdiseases. Data mining technology provides a user oriented approachto extract hidden patterns from the data. Data mining can deal withheterogeneous type of data. Medical data are different from data inother databases. Medical data are heterogeneous and contain textand images also, for example MRI , ECG, etc generate hugeamounts of heterogeneous medical data. Knowledge discovery fromthis type of data can greatly benefit mankind by improved diagnostictechniques.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 8, November 201092http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
 A.
 B
ackground 
 
Diet and nutrition are important factors in the promotion andmaintenance of good health throughout the entire life course. Thechronic diseases related to diet and nutrition are anemia, obesity,diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis etc. Anemiacan be defined as a reduction in the hemoglobin, hematocrit or redcell number[10]. The sudden, rapid loss of 30% of the total bloodvolume often results in death. The burden of chronic disease israpidly increasing world wide .It has been calculated that in 2001,chronic diseases contributed approximately 60% of the 56.5 milliontotal reported deaths in the world and approximately 46% of theglobal burden of disease.The chronic disease problem has effected a large proportion of our population. It has been projected that by 2020 chronic diseaseswill account for almost three quarters of all deaths worldwide aredue to heart diseases. Chronic diseases are largely preventabledisease. Research has shown that diet can control chronic diseases tolarge extent[11]. Modern dietary patterns and physical activitypatterns are beneficial in prevention of chronic diseases. Thechemical composition of food and physiological response to diet canbe discovered. Unraveling the interconnection between diet andhealth through data mining techniques is the basis of this paperidentification of disease and diet associated composite molecularbiomarkers will facilitate identification of new molecular targets fordevelopment of novel therapeutic agents to address diet relatedchronic diseases .
 B. Data Mining And Statistics
Data Mining is designed[2] to learn future prediction. The DataMining tool checks the statistical significance of the predictedpatterns and reports. The difference between Data Mining andstatistics is that Data Mining automates the statistical processrequiring in several mining tools. Statistical inference is assumptiondriven in the sense that a hypothesis is formed and tested againstdata. Data Mining in contrast is discovery driven. That is, thehypothesis is automatically extracted from the given data. The otherreason is Data Mining techniques tend to be more robust for real-world data and also used less by expert users.
C. Statistical Correlation
Through correlation[3] we may find that a change in one variableresult in change of second variable.Whenever there exists a relationship between two variable suchthat a change in one variable results in a positive or negative changein other and also greater change in one variable results in acorresponding greater change in the other, the relationship is calledcorrelation and the two variables are called correlated.Two variables are called positively correlated if corresponding toan increase (or decrease) in one variable results in an increase (ordecrease) in the other.Two variables are negatively correlated if corresponding to anincrease (or decrease) in one variable results in decrease (orincrease) in the other.II.
A
SSOCIATION AND CORRELATION TO BUILDRELATIONSHIPIn this paper we are dealing with two distinct systems, anemiahuman subject and diet prediction. Based on the level of hemoglobinof individual, we have made an attempt to associate human subjectand iron requirement. It has been found that average range of hemoglobin for males is 14-16 and for females is 12-14. The ironrequirement for average range of hemoglobin individual accordingto RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowances) table is 28mg formales and 30mg for females. The table given below depicts the factthat the iron requirement of females is more than that of males. Wehave used the correlation statistical technique for finding therelationship between both the systems.In every case of anemia[9], the cause should be discovered andtreated. In clinical practice, nutritional anemia is commonlyassociated with overall under-nutrition and a balanced diet should begiven. Usually, diet alone is not adequate and therapy with specificsupplements
 – 
particularly iron
 – 
is also needed. Supplements of 10mg (179 micromol) iron daily prevent iron deficiency.Association rule mining[5] uses support confidence framework.Diet can cure anemia, this statement can be justified through supportconfidence measure. We can augment support confidenceframework through correlation. The Bayesian correlation techniquehas been used to find the correlation between required level of iron(in mg) and range of hemoglobin of individuals.III.
 
E
XPERIMENTAL
 
R
ESULTSSufficient safe and varied food supplies not only preventmalnutrition but also reduce the risk of chronic diseases whereasnutritional deficiency increases the risk of common infectiousdiseases generally in children. This paper has used data miningtechniques to investigate factors that contribute significantly inreducing the risk of chronic disease anemia.There are two methods of analyzing correlation betweenvariables:(i)
 
Karl Pearson
s Method
 (ii)
 
Scatter Diagram Method
(i)
Use of Karl Pearson
’ 
 s method to find coefficient of correlation:
 Correlation is the relationship between two or more than twovariables. We are finding correlation between anemia humansubjects(male and female) and predicted diet. Anemia is a chronicdisease caused due to several factors. Among those factorsinadequate and malnutrition is a major cause of anemia. We havegenerated the following correlation Table 1 for male anemia subjectwith mid value of hemoglobin range(X
m
) and iron intake (Y
m
mg):-Hb range: 0-6 6-8 8-12 12-14 14-16Iron intake: 42 36 34 31 28
T
ABLE
1.
X
m
Y
m
x=X
m
-M
x
 y=Y
m
 -M
y
 
x2
 
y2
x*y3 42 -6.6 7.8 43.56 60.84 -51.487 36 -2.6 1.8 6.76 3.24 -4.68
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 8, November 201093http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
10 34 0.4 -0.2 0.16 0.4 -0.813 31 3.4 -3.2 11.56 10.24 -10.8815 28 5.4 -6.2 29.16 38.44 -33.4848 171
Σ
x
2
=91.2
Σ
y
2
=113.16
Σ
x*y
=-101.32M
Xm
=
 
Σ
X
m
/n = 48/5 = 9.6M
Ym
=
 
Σ
Y
m
/n = 171/5 = 34.2The coefficient of correlation for male anemia subjects:-r =
Σ
 
x*y/ 
 
Σ
 
x
2
*
 
Σ
 
y
2
 = -101.32/ 
(
91.2)*(113.16)= -101.32/ 
(10320.192)
 = -101.32/101.5883= -0.9974
(ii)
Scatter Diagram Method:
The diagrammatic representation of abivariate data is known as scatter diagram. For bivariate the valuesof variables X and Y are plotted (male and female) in the X-Y plane.X axis denote range of hemoglobin and Y axis denotes iron requiredfor individuals.
Figure 1
Correlation between Hemoglobin and Iron Intake(Male)
010203040500 5 10 15 20
Hemoglobin Range
   I  r  o  n    I  n   t  a   k  e
Iron Intake
 
In this scatter diagram all the points lie on a line and it declinesfrom left to right, this depicts the fact that there is a negativecorrelation of 
high degree
between the variables, i.e. if thehemoglobin count of individual is less than the required iron ismore.We have generated the following correlation Table 1 for femaleanemia subject with mid value of hemoglobin range(X) and ironintake (Ymg):-Hb range: 0-6 6-8 8-12 12-14Iron intake: 42 36 34 30
T
ABLE
2.
X
Y
x=X
-M
x
 y= Y
 -M
y
 
x2
 
y2
x*y3 45 -5.25 8.5 27.56 72.25 -44.6257 38 -1.25 1.5 1.56 2.25 -1.87510 33 1.75 -3.5 3.06 12.25 -6.12513 30 4.75 -6.5 22.56 42.25 -30.87533 146
Σ
x
2
=54.74
Σ
y
2
=129
Σ
x*y
=-83.5M
Xf 
=
 
Σ
X
/n = 33/4 = 8.25M
Yf 
=
 
Σ
Y
/n = 146/4 = 36.5The coefficient of correlation for female anemia subjects:-r =
Σ
 
x*y/ 
 
Σ
 
x
2
*
 
Σ
 
y
2
 = -83.5/ 
(
54.74)*(129)= -83.5/ 
 
(7061.46)= -83.5/84.0325= -0.9937
Figure 2
Correlation between Hemoglobin and Iron Intake(Female)
01020304050051015
Hemoglobin Range
   I  r  o  n    I  n   t  a   k  e
Iron Intake
 
If measure of correlation is between -0.75 and -1, negative thenmeasure of correlation is of high degree.Both the methods have justified the same fact that there isnegative correlation of high degree between hemoglobin range andrequired iron.IV.
 
C
ONCLUSION
 
AND
 
FUTURE
 
SCOPEData Mining can be performed by dietitians and hospitaladministration to prepare diet chart for anemic patients.The goal is
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 8, November 201094http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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