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Extraction of Information from Images using Dewrapping Techniques

Extraction of Information from Images using Dewrapping Techniques

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Published by ijcsis
An image containing textual information is called a document image. The textual information in document images is useful in areas like vehicle number plate reading, passport reading and cargo container
reading and so on. Thus extracting useful textual information in the document image plays an important role in many applications. One of the major challenges in camera document analysis is to deal with the wrap and perspective distortions. In spite of the prevalence of dewrapping techniques, there is no standard efficient algorithm for the performance evaluation that concentrates on visualization. Wrapping is a common appearance document image before recognition. In order to capture the document images a mobile camera of 2megapixel resolution is used. A database is developed with variations in background, size and colour along with wrapped images, blurred and clean images. This database will be explored and text extraction from those document images is performed. In case of wrapped images no efficient dewrapping
techniques have been implemented till date. Thus extracting the text from the wrapped images is done by maintaining a suitable template database. Further, the extracted text from the wrapped or other document images will be converted into an editable form such as Notepad or MS word document. The experimental results were corroborated on various objects of database.
An image containing textual information is called a document image. The textual information in document images is useful in areas like vehicle number plate reading, passport reading and cargo container
reading and so on. Thus extracting useful textual information in the document image plays an important role in many applications. One of the major challenges in camera document analysis is to deal with the wrap and perspective distortions. In spite of the prevalence of dewrapping techniques, there is no standard efficient algorithm for the performance evaluation that concentrates on visualization. Wrapping is a common appearance document image before recognition. In order to capture the document images a mobile camera of 2megapixel resolution is used. A database is developed with variations in background, size and colour along with wrapped images, blurred and clean images. This database will be explored and text extraction from those document images is performed. In case of wrapped images no efficient dewrapping
techniques have been implemented till date. Thus extracting the text from the wrapped images is done by maintaining a suitable template database. Further, the extracted text from the wrapped or other document images will be converted into an editable form such as Notepad or MS word document. The experimental results were corroborated on various objects of database.

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Published by: ijcsis on Dec 04, 2010
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No.8, 2010
Extraction of Information from Images using DewrappingTechniques
Khalid Nazim S. A.,Research Scholar,Singhania University,Rajasthan, India.Dr. M.B. Sanjay Pande,Professor and Head,Department of ComputerScience & Engineering,VVIET, Mysore, India.
 Abstract
-
An image containing textualinformation is called a document image. Thetextual information in document images isuseful in areas like vehicle number platereading, passport reading and cargo containerreading and so on. Thus extracting usefultextual information in the document imageplays an important role in many applications.One of the major challenges in cameradocument analysis is to deal with the wrap andperspective distortions. In spite of theprevalence of dewrapping techniques, there isno standard efficient algorithm for theperformance evaluation that concentrates onvisualization.
 
Wrapping is a common appearance documentimage before recognition. In order to capturethe document images a mobile camera of 2megapixel resolution is used. A database isdeveloped with variations in background, sizeand colour along with wrapped images, blurredand clean images. This database will beexplored and text extraction from thosedocument images is performed. In case of wrapped images no efficient dewrappingtechniques have been implemented till date.Thus extracting the text from the wrappedimages is done by maintaining a suitabletemplate database. Further, the extracted textfrom the wrapped or other document imageswill be converted into an editable form such asNotepad or MS word document. Theexperimental results were corroborated onvarious objects of database.
Keywords:
Dewrapping, Template Database,Text Extraction.
I
.
I
NTRODUCTION
An image may be defined as a twodimensional function
 f(x, y),
where x and y arespatial co-ordinates and the amplitude of 
 f 
atany pair of co-ordinates(x, y) is the intensity orgray level of the image at that point. When x, yand the intensity values of 
 f 
are all finite, thedigital image is composed of finite number of elements where each has a particular locationand value. These elements are called pictureelements, image elements, pels and pixels[7][14].Image processing can be broadlycategorized into two classes. The first categorytakes images as input and gives the images asoutput. The other category takes images asinput and gives the attributes of images asoutput. The entire processing can be listed as:(i).
 Image enhancement 
- It involvesmanipulating an image so that the result ismore suitable than original for processing.(ii).
 Image restoration
- It involves improvingthe appearance of an image based onmathematical or probabilistic model of imagedegradation.(iii).
Colour image processing
- Colour can beused as factor or basis for extracting features
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No.8, 2010
of interest in an image.(iv).
Compression
- This reduces the storagerequired to save an image or bandwidth totransmit an image.(v).
 Morphological image processing-
It dealswith the tools for extracting image componentsthat are useful in the representation anddescription of shape.(vi).
Segmentation
- It deals with thepartitioning of an image into constituent partsnamely autonomous and rugged segmentation[7] [4].A document is a bounded physical ordigital representation of a body of informationwith capacity (and usually intent) tocommunicate. Document image processing andunderstanding has been extensively studiedover the past 40 years that
has carved a niche outof the more general problem of computer visionbecause of its pseudo binary nature and theregularity of the patterns used as a “visual”representation of language. In the early 1960s,optical character recognition was taken as one of thefirst clear applications of pattern recognition andtoday, for some simple tasks with clean and well-formed data document analysis is viewed as asolved problem. Unfortunately, these simple tasksdo not represent the most common needs of theusers of document image analysis. The challengesof complex content and layout, noisy data andvariations in font and style presentation keep thefield active.Traditionally, document images are scannedfrom pseudo binary hardcopy paper manuscriptswith a flatbed, sheet-fed, or mounted imagingdevice. Recently, the community has seen anincreased interest in adapting digital cameras totasks related to document image analysis. Digitalcamcorders, digital cameras, PCcams, PDA’s(personal digital assistant) and even cell phonecameras are becoming increasingly popular and theyhave shown potential as alternative imaging devices.Although they cannot replace scanners, they aresmall, light, easily integrated with various networksand more suitable for many document capturingtasks in less constrained environments. Theseadvantages are leading to a natural extension of thedocument processing community where cameras areused to image hardcopy documents or natural scenescontaining textual content [12].Cameras in an uncontrolled environmenthave triggered a lot of interest in the researchcommunity over the last few years and manyapproaches have been proposed. However, there hasbeen no satisfactory work presented for dewrappingtechniques so far. Wrapping is a commonappearance in camera captured document images[13]. It is the primary factor that makes such kind of document images hard to be recognized. Thereforeit is necessary to restore wrapped document imagebefore recognition. The documents captured fromcameras often suffer from various distortions, likenon-planar (wrapped) shape, uneven light shading,motion blur, perspective distortion, under-exposureand over-exposure. But current
Optical Character  Recognition (OCR)
systems do not deal with thesedistortions when applied directly to wrappedcamera-captured document images.Images when captured will suffer fromdistortions such as noise, blur and so on. In order toperform operations on document the distortionshave to be removed. Noise removal and blurremoval is done using filters. There are severaltypes of filters available among them the Gaussianfilter is the most efficient filter. Gaussian filters area class of linear smoothing filters with the weightschosen according to the shape of the Gaussianfunction. The Gaussian smoothing filter is a verygood filter for removing the noise drawn from anormal distribution. Gaussian functions arerotationally symmetric in two dimensions i.e. theamount of smoothing performed by the filter is thesame in all directions. In image sharpening the goalis to highlight fine details in an image. That is, toenhance details that have been blurred. Fine detailsin the frequency domain correspond to high
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No.8, 2010
frequencies, thus the use of high-pass filters forimage sharpening [3] [10].
Text detection refers to thedetermination of the presence of text in a givenframe (normally text detection is used for asequence of images). Text localization is theprocess of determining the location of text inthe image and generating bounding boxesaround the text [2][7]. Text tracking isperformed to reduce the processing time fortext localization and to maintain the integrityof position across adjacent frames. Althoughthe precise location of text in an image can beindicated by bounding boxes, the text stillneeds to be segmented from the background tofacilitate its recognition. This means that theextracted text image has to be converted to abinary image and enhanced image is then usedfor text extraction. Text extraction is the stagewhere the text components are segmented fromthe background, enhancement of the extractedtext components is required because the textregion usually has a low-resolution and isprone to noise.
II
.
 
L
ITERATURE
S
URVEY
Jian Liang, et.al. proposed a method that isfocused on analyzing text and documentscaptured by a camera which is known ascamera-based analysis of text and documents.Camera based document analysis is moreflexible to provide capability to captureinformation for visual communication,indexing, reading graphical text in web pages.In camera based analysis of text anddocuments, sources of images used are paperbased, printed handwritten documents, journaletc. Scanner based process provides goodreference and starting point, but they cannot beused directly on camera-captured images.
 
Content in an image can be perceptualor semantic content but the text within animage is of more interest as it describes thecontents of the image. It can be easilyextracted compared to the semantic contents. Avariety of approaches to Text InformationExtraction(TIE) from images and videos havebeen proposed for specific applicationsincluding page segmentation, address block location, number plate location and contentbased image or video indexing. Text extractionsystem has various applications such asportable computers, content basedvideo/document coding, license platerecognition and video content analysis. Toenhance performance of text informationsystem it is advantageous to merge varioussources as proposed by Keechul et.al.Portable digital cameras are now usedfor digitalizing documents and as a fast way toacquire document images taking advantage of their low weight, portability, low cost, smalldimensions etc. Several specific problems arisein this digitization process. Rafael et.al,addressed the inherent problems of documentimage digitization using portable camera.Their work was based on an issue thatdocuments make use of translucent paper insuch a way that back-to-front interference wasnot observed. Also when a document image istaken from the camera the strobe flash causesan uneven illumination of the document.Marginal noise, not only drops the quality of the resulting image for CRT screenvisualization, but also consumes space forstorage and large amounts of toner for printing,which alters the segmentation algorithm of theoptical character recognition and thus affectsthe response obtained in the number of characters and words correctly transcribed. Itassumes that the background may be of anycolour or texture, provided that there is a
103http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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