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A role oriented requirements analysis for ERP implementation in health care Organizations

A role oriented requirements analysis for ERP implementation in health care Organizations

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Published by ijcsis
Information is worthwhile only if it can be accessed at the right time, by the right person & is useful for the purpose defined. Health care providers have a strong tradition of safeguarding private health information. Today's world belongs to Information Technology. With information broadly held and transmitted electronically, the rule provides clear standards for all parties regarding protection of personal health information. Medical resources integration concerns has also been a long-standing problem, which need to work in collaboration with information technology, aiming at a common goal. The complexity and extension of roles of the planning system demand extensive seamless integrations in the organization. Medical enterprise resources planning (ERP) integrates each level of healthcare staff by providing information and knowledge in timely manner, making the ERP a synchronizing solution for all the roles required in the organization for various timely decision makings. From this motivation, this paper proposes a role-oriented requirement definition analysis for ERP implementations in the organizations. Integrated hospitals need a central planning and control system to plan patients’ processes and the required capacity. Given the changes in healthcare one can ask the question what type of information systems can best support these healthcare delivery organizations. We focus in this review on the potential of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems for healthcare delivery organizations.
Information is worthwhile only if it can be accessed at the right time, by the right person & is useful for the purpose defined. Health care providers have a strong tradition of safeguarding private health information. Today's world belongs to Information Technology. With information broadly held and transmitted electronically, the rule provides clear standards for all parties regarding protection of personal health information. Medical resources integration concerns has also been a long-standing problem, which need to work in collaboration with information technology, aiming at a common goal. The complexity and extension of roles of the planning system demand extensive seamless integrations in the organization. Medical enterprise resources planning (ERP) integrates each level of healthcare staff by providing information and knowledge in timely manner, making the ERP a synchronizing solution for all the roles required in the organization for various timely decision makings. From this motivation, this paper proposes a role-oriented requirement definition analysis for ERP implementations in the organizations. Integrated hospitals need a central planning and control system to plan patients’ processes and the required capacity. Given the changes in healthcare one can ask the question what type of information systems can best support these healthcare delivery organizations. We focus in this review on the potential of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems for healthcare delivery organizations.

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A role oriented requirements analysis for ERPimplementation in health care Organizations
Kirti Pancholi
1
, Durgesh Kumar Mishra
2
 
1
Acropolis Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Indore, MP, India
2
Acropolis Institute of Technology and Research, Indore, MP, Indiakirtipancholi@acropolis.edu.in
,mishra_research@rediffmail.com
 Abstract-
Information is worthwhile only if it can be accessed at theright time, by the right person & is useful for the purpose defined.Health care providers have a strong tradition of safeguardingprivate health information. Today's world belongs to InformationTechnology. With information broadly held and transmittedelectronically, the rule provides clear standards for all partiesregarding protection of personal health information. Medicalresources integration concerns has also been a long-standingproblem, which need to work in collaboration with informationtechnology, aiming at a common goal. The complexity andextension of roles of the planning system demand extensiveseamless integrations in the organization. Medical enterpriseresources planning (ERP) integrates each level of healthcare staff by providing information and knowledge in timely manner,making the ERP a synchronizing solution for all the roles requiredin the organization for various timely decision makings. From thismotivation, this paper proposes a role-oriented requirementdefinition analysis for ERP implementations in the organizations.
 
Integrated hospitals need a central planning and control system to
plan patients’ processes and the required capacity. Given the
changes in healthcare one can ask the question what type of information systems can best support these healthcare deliveryorganizations. We focus in this review on the potential of enterpriseresource planning (ERP) systems for healthcare deliveryorganizations.
 Keywords: Patient Logistics, Planning and control, clinical  management, ERP, AP.
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 Information technologies in healthcare is more abouthow it originally developed for manufacturing are fitted tosupport clinical and administrative work in hospitals. Commondenominators for these information technologies are Enterpriseresource planning systems or simply ERP. As the healthcaresector faces increasing demands from political and public sidesto document increased cost- effectiveness, to make optimal useof still more scarce resources and to improve the quality of patient care, a number of IT vendors Endeavour in a quest tohelp healthcare organizations to gain control over their businessprocesses. My research is concerned with the issues that arisewhen an IT-solution, based on rationalistic models of Healthcare best practices meets clinical practice and the work that needs to be done in order to align the solution to praxis orsometimes vice versa.
Enterprise resource planning (ERP)is a company-wide computer software system used tomanage and coordinate all the resources,
 
information, andfunctions of a business from shared data stores.
An ERPsystem has aservice-oriented architecturewith modular hardwareand software units or "services" that communicate on alocal areanetwork.The modular design allows a business to add orreconfigure modules while preservingdata integrityin one shareddatabase that may be centralized or distributed [6] [7].
 
II.
 
W
HY
ERP
INTRODUCE IN HEALTH CARE INDUSTRY
 Healthcare is yet another booming industry that enjoysunlimited growth opportunities through the globe. The obviousreason is that science and technology leads to both vices andvirtues. The diseases are rapidly multiplying at a rate faster thanthe invention of medicines. No doubt it has become a verylucrative profession be it medical professional or paramedicalprofessional or corporate hospitals. Some of the reasons for theincreased usage and preference of ERP are as follows [9] [10]
:
 
 A.
 
Computerization
 
ERP function becomes very important in this context.The attitude of personnel in hospital industry is quiet differentfrom that of the others. When people quickly respond tocomputerization and automation it is practically difficult for thetrend to follow suit in hospitals. The reason is doctors arekeener to update about medical terminologies and surgicaltrends than any about any other office equipment. This has alsoincreased the percentage of ERP use.This could not last for a long time. The situationchanged slowly. In addition to the other departments medicaland paramedical professionals have taken the necessary steps tokeep them abreast of the latest technology as it is directly orindirectly connected with the profession. ERP function helps toachieve this.The concept of enterprise resource planning has madethe process of segregating bills and patient records much easier.This industry also realized the need to adapt to ERP. Hence theindustry was able to save more lives (but at the cost of anindividual's privacy) as it enabled to access the database of patients and medical histories through the common databaseshared by hospitals and that too at a quicker rate.
 B.
 
 Avenues for earning
The scope of medicine gets enlarged at a devastatingrate. ERP architecture is an important factor in this area. Whatwas considered as service in the
yesteryears
has become aservice industry in commercial jargon. As hospitals multiply ata fast pace there is a constant urge to induce professionalismand best practices in the industry.In this context patients demand more than the previousdays. They naturally want the best return for the money. Whenthe industry is developing at a great speed with the twoelements namely business and service gets stirred inproportions. And in this situation no hospital can continue withthe old age practices and technologies and still charges heavily.Therefore it becomes imperative for hospitals to adopt the latesttrends in terms of technology and acumen in order to retaincustomer loyalty. There is no need to advocate hospitals to getthe latest medical equipments or follow the medical practices. Ithappens naturally otherwise their survival will become a
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 8, November 2010120
 
question mark. However after repeated experiences and acidtests hospitals have become prune to investing in latesttechnology like ERP and at the same time justify their cost.
C.
 
Pressure from patients 
Hospitals were not few and far between in the oldendays. Hence the patients yielded to the demands of hospitalsevery time even if it meant lesser quality of treatment for thecharges because they had no other choice. This is evident fromERP systems definition.The rate of hospital expansion is alarming. They havemushroomed every where. Patients are no more at the mercy of doctors but it is vice versa. When a patient is not satisfied hewill not visit the hospital anymore. ERP systems definition willprove this better.When it comes to treatment there should not be morethan minor discrepancies among hospitals that are off at thesame standards. One parameter for measuring the quality of treatment is the technology involved in offering
 
it. Thistechnology not only creates a level of comfort but also helps thepatient to be confident that he is receiving the best treatment.Consumers themselves demand tools like ERP andstrongly rate it when it comes to the question of embarking withthe hospital environment. There can be no wonder in sayingthat they have proved to be an important factor for influencingthe hospitals to go for ERP. ERP review software helps them todecide the appropriate software.
 D.
 
 Reduces operational costs 
Enterprise resource planning helps to bring down thecost of operations. Based on the requirements the hospitals cango for best of breed or enterprise applications. This is animportant step that helps hospitals to decide the appropriatesoftware.Hospitals can reduce their overheads through ERP as ithelps to integrate all functions namely accounts , finance ,human resources and bring them systems under one commondatabase on the basis of ERP architecture.III.
 
ERP
IN THE
H
EALTHCARE
 ERP present an organization with operational andtechnical advantages, as well as a set of tangible and intangiblefinancial benefits. In addition, ERP can provide number of benefits to health care organization. Human recourse canbenefit from an ERP implementation due to centralizedscheduling. In addition, for billing, laboratory, pharmacy andpatient records can help in the anticipation of internalworkflow.The planning process of ERP in hospital environments
:
 ERP Administrator Plus
 
integrated new generationhospital management software which converges latesttechnology and your administrative process to manage work process within the hospital. This is designed for multi-specialtyhospitals, to cover a wide range of Hospital administration andmanagement processes. It is an integrated client serverapplication which uses Microsoft technologies as Front End andFlexible back end (like Oracle, SQL, etc).Objective:To provide an integrated Solution for the Hospital, whichhelps in Efficient Management of the Hospital? [11]
 
Enhance Patient Care
 
Improve work efficiency
 
Improve Fiscal Control
 
Eliminate the chances of any Pilferage
 
Enable the Growth of the Hospital ERP Administrator
 
Administrator Plus streamlines and integrate theoperation processes and information flow in the hospitalto synergize the resources namely men, material, moneyand equipments through information.
 
This ERP facilitates hospital-wide IntegratedInformation System covering all functional areas likeout & in Patients Billing & Management, Patient Beds,Visiting Consultants, Medical Stores, PathologyLaboratories, Radiology Laboratories, Imaging,Pharmacy, Manpower Management, Kitchen andLaundry Services etc.
 
It performs core hospital activities and increasescustomer service thereby augmenting the overallHospital Image. ERP bridges the information gap acrossthe hospital.
 
Administrator Plus eliminates the most of the businessproblems like Material shortages, Productivityenhancements, Customer service, Cash Management,Inventory problems, Quality problems, Prompt delivery,Pilferage, TPA Billing etc.
Key Features
 
Administrator plus (AP) is a fully-integrated, HospitalInformation System Solution.
 
AP gives a total integration of order entry systems,administrative system, and departmental subsystemswithin a hospital.
 
AP allows for scalability, reliability, efficient dataprocessing, quick decision making, reduced maintenanceand overheads.
 
The data is stored in a single database providing realtime data across applications throughout the hospital.Since all the data is stored centrally, it can be viewedsimultaneously from multiple terminals giving alldepartments' access totimely, up-to-date patient information.
 
Administrator Plus offers a foolproof data securitywithout user intervention to archive data.
 
AP is a comprehensive information system dealing withall aspects of information processing in a hospital. Thisencompasses human (and paper-based) informationprocessing as well as data processing machines.
 
As an area of Medical Informatics the aim of AdminPlus is to achieve the best possible support of patientcare and administration by electronic data processing.
Modules
 As fig 1 ERP AP devised the following modules according tothe requirements of a Multi Specialty Hospital and theyintegrate the various departments into a comprehensive system.Figure 1
Figure 1: ERP Modules
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 8, November 2010121
 
The various modules of ERP
 Administrator Plus
are [8]:a.
 
 Reception Management 
Reception is the first point of interaction for anybodycoming to the Hospital. It has all the information of thepatients, doctors, departments and activities of the Hospital. Allenquiries and appointments are scheduled through this module.All information available here are in real time and any enquiryabout the patient status, Room Status, Doctors availability ortariff's for various services is on actual status since the data isconstantly updated.This module comprises of the following components
 
Patient Enquiry: This will provide information of anypatient like: Patient status, Name, Address or any otherdemographic detail.
 
Consultants Enquiry: Any Information regarding avisiting Consultant can be obtained like consultant'savailability, days & time of availability, Department,specialization or any other.
 
Tariff Enquiry: This option can be used to enquire aboutthe tariffs of the hospital. The tariffs are classified intodepartments. Enquiry about any service provided in theHospital can be made.
 
Appointments Scheduling: This option allocates theslots for various consultants. Any appointment can bebooked either by phone or visit, enquired and cancelled.
 
In-patient Enquiry: Any enquiry can be made for anyindoor patient in the Hospital. The enquiry can be madeas per the Name, Address, Department, Bed, Ward,Patient Registration Number, etc.b.
 
Patient Registration
Every patient who visits the hospital has to getregistered prior to getting any consultation, treatment orinvestigations done. Registration of patients involves acceptingcertain general and demographic information about the patient.The patient is allocated a unique Registration number and aPatient Identification number. The Patient ID will remain samefor his all subsequent visits to the hospital whereas he will beallocated a new registration number on every visit. Theconsultation charges (if applicable) can also be collected for theOPD patients during registration and a receipt will begenerated.c.
 
Out Patient Management 
After registration an OPD Card is printed for the OPDpatients, which list all his registration information. This card isused for the prescription writing by the consultant. AnAdmission form is printed with all the registration details forIndoor patients, which serves as the cover page of the patientfile.After the registration the patient comes to theconsultation chamber, where the consultant records his history,diagnose and prescribe medicines & investigation.The Consultant note down the following details on PatientsOPD Card like Complaints, History, Diagnosis, Investigation,Medicines, Advice and Next VisitThis information is then entered into the patient databy the consultant or the operator at the OPD Counter. It servesthe purpose of tracing patient's visits history and also as afeedback for research & analysis. The prescription can also bescanned and saved. The scanned data can be entered later intovarious fields by the operator.d.
 
OPD Billing
For billing of any OPD service like Pathology Tests,or any imaging investigation, the patient moves to OPD billingcounter. Here the services are charged as per the rates alreadydefined for various categories/ penal/ time etc to the patientwith his Patient ID. The Payment is collected for the serviceprovided and a receipt is generated.This module works as an interface with the diagnosticmodules. All services will be automatically entered into therespective modules wherever required like lab & Imagingreporting.e.
 
 Investigation Reporting
In the routine functioning of a hospital, various typesof investigations are carried out. Carrying out number of testsand making the results available promptly is very crucial forassessing the patient's medical status and deciding on the furthercourse of action.Investigation requisition can be auto-generated(through OPD billing or IPD) or can also be generated here,depending on the system followed in the hospital. The testsparameters are pre defined with the interpretations & formulaewherever applicable. The test results are entered into thesoftware manually or with equipment integration and adescriptive smart report is printed after verification andvalidation.f.
 
 Indoor Patients Management 
The Indoor patient module commences when thepatient is being registered and allotted a bed in the ward. Itdeals with the complete treatment and services provided to thepatient during his stay in the hospital.This module works at the nursing station. During his stay in thehospital, every patient is provided various services in terms of 
consultant’s visits, investigations, proc
edures, medicines &consumable, room services, diet, etc. All these services areentered online to the patient record through nursing station. Italso interacts with the Investigation module, Store, Pharmacyand sends the requisitions to these departments. This data servesas major input for the IPD billing.
 IPD
 
 Billing
Indoor billing module has a supervisory role. The entries forbilling are automatically transferred to the patient bill by therespective departments, which provide the service. The servicesare charged as per the category/panel/package applicable.Here the bill is compiled and the payment collected from timeto time. Provisional and Final bills are generated whichprovides complete information about the Services availed, itsCharges, Advance collected, appropriate Receipts, Refunds,Credit notes, Concession allowed, etc.
Optional Modules
 
Hospital StoreThis module deals with the inventory of all HospitalEquipments, Materials, Consumables, and Medicines,Implants & Asset items in different departments of thehospital along with their purchase and supplier details.Requisitions for different items/equipment are sent to thisstore from different departments and accordingly the CentralStore issues items/equipment to various departments andgenerate purchase orders for purchases. This also maintainsrecords of purchases, stock, and supplier list,item/equipment/material master tables.The Store module ensures that there is a round theclock availability of a sufficient quantity of drugs andconsumable material for the patients in a mode that neitherhinders efficient clinical work, nor it becomes a threat to thesurvival of the Store.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 8, November 2010122

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