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Warm Mix Asphalt Technologies- An Overview

Warm Mix Asphalt Technologies- An Overview

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Paper by P.S. Kandhal published in the Journal of the Indian Roads Congress Volume 71-2, 2010 gives an overview of current warm mix asphalt technologies.
Paper by P.S. Kandhal published in the Journal of the Indian Roads Congress Volume 71-2, 2010 gives an overview of current warm mix asphalt technologies.

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Published by: Prof. Prithvi Singh Kandhal on Dec 04, 2010
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1
WarmMixAsphaltTechnologies:AnOverview
By
Prof.PrithviSinghKandhal*
[ThispaperwaspublishedasPaperNo.561intheJournaloftheIndianRoadsCongress,Volume71-2,July-September2010.Authors’responsestocommentsreceivedonthispaperarealsogivenattheend.]
ABSTRACT
Warmmixasphalt(WMA)technologyallowsthemixing,laydown,andcompactionofasphaltmixatsignificantlylowertemperaturescomparedtohotmixasphalt(HMA).WMAmixescanbeproducedattemperatureof120Corlower.WMAoffersmanysignificantadvantagessuchas(a)energysavings,(b)decreasedemissionsandfumes,(c)decreasedbinderaging,and(d)extendedpavingseasonintothecoldwintermonthsandatplaceslocatedonhighaltitudes.ThelastadvantageshouldbeveryusefultotheIndianBorderRoadsOrganization.IndiacanalsoearncarboncreditsundertheKyotoProtocolifWMAisimplementedasareplacementforHMAwhereverpossible,therebyreducinggreenhousegas.ThepaperdescribestheWMAtechnologiesdevelopedtothisdateinEuropeandtheUS,suchassyntheticzeolite,Sasobit,Evotherm,WAMFoam,LEA,RedisetWMX,REVIX,andDoubleGreenBarreltogetherwiththeirlaboratoryevaluation,ifavailable.IthasbeenrecommendedtoconstructWMAdemonstrationprojectsinIndiasoon.
1.
INTRODUCTION
Warmmixasphalt(WMA)isafastemergingnewtechnologywhichhasapotentialofrevolutionizingtheproductionofasphaltmixtures.WMAtechnologyallowsthemixing,laydown,andcompactionofasphaltmixesatsignificantlylowertemperaturescomparedtohotmixasphalt(HMA).Thetechnologycanreduceproductiontemperaturesbyasmuchas30percent
1
.Asphaltmixesaregenerallyproducedat150
°
Corgreatertemperaturesdependingmainlyonthetypeofbinderused.WMAmixescanbeproducedattemperaturesofabout120
°
Corlower.ThedevelopmentofWMAwasinitiatedinEuropeinthelate1990sprimarilyinresponsetotheneedforgreenhousegasreductionundertheKyotoProtocol.WMAtechnologiessuchasAspha-min,WAMFoam,andSasobitweredevelopedduringthattime.TheUSNationalAsphaltPavementAssociation(NAPA)organizedaEuropeanScantourin2002toexaminethesethreeWMAtechnologies.TheNationalCenterforAsphaltTechnology(NCAT)initiatedresearch
1,2,3,4
onWMAtechnologiesin2003.NewWMAtechnologiessuchasEvotherm,RedisetWMX,REVIX,LEA(LowEnergyAsphalt)andDoubleBarrelGreenwerelaterdevelopedwithintheUSduring*AssociateDirectorEmeritus,NationalCenterforAsphaltTechnology(NCAT),AuburnUniversity,USA.CurrentlyinJaipur.e-mail:pkandhal@gmail.com
 
2the2004-2007period
11
.AsecondEuropeanscantour
5,6,7
wasconductedinMay2007byUSengineerstogatheradditionalinformationonWMAtechnologiesinEurope.AlthoughWMAoriginatedinEuropethescanteamfoundthattheUShadalreadymadegreatprogressinevaluatingandimplementingWMAtechnologies.Thiswasmadepossiblebythepublicprivatepartnerships.
2.
ADVANTAGESOFWMAANDIMPORTANCEFORINDIA
Warmmixasphaltoffersthefollowingsignificantadvantages:
Energysavings
.ThemostobviousbenefitofWMAisthereductioninfuelconsumption.Fuelisusedtodryandheattheaggregate.StudieshaveshownthatlowerplantmixtemperaturesassociatedwithWMAcanleadtoasmuchas30percentreductioninenergyconsumption
1
.
Decreasedemissions
.WMAproducesemissions(bothvisibleandnonvisible)fromtheburningoffossilfuelsatasignificantlyreducedlevelcomparedtoHMA.Thiswouldpermitasphaltplantstobelocatedinandaroundnon-attainmentareassuchaslargemetropolitanareasthathaveairqualityrestrictions.
Decreasedfumesandodour
.WMAproduceslowerfumesandodourbothattheplantandthepavingsitecomparedtoHMA.Thiswouldalsoresultinimprovedworkingconditionsatbothplaces.
Decreasedbinderaging
.Short-termagingofliquidasphaltbindertakesplacewhenitismixedwithhotaggregateinpugmillormixingdrum.Thisagingiscausedbythelossoflighteroilsfromtheliquidasphaltbindersduringmixingathightemperatures.Itisbelievedthattheshort-termagingofthebinderwillbereducedsignificantlybecausethelossoflighteroilswillbelessatrelativelylowermixingtemperatures.Thismayenhanceasphaltpavementdurability.
Extendedpavingseason
.ByproducingWMAatnormalHMAtemperatures,itmaybepossibletoextendthepavingseasonintothecoldermonthsoftheyearorinplaceslocatedonhighaltitudessincetheWMAadditivesorprocessesactasacompactionaid.Furtherbynarrowingthedifferencebetweencompactiontemperatureandambientairtemperaturetherateofcoolingisdecreased.WMAmayalsobetransportedoverlongerdistancesascomparedtoHMAwithreducedlossofmixtemperatureinthehaulingunits.ThisadvantageshouldfacilitatetheIndianBorderRoadsOrganization(BRO)inconstructingasphaltroadsinhighaltitudeand/orremoteareasfarawayfromhotmixplants
8
.
Compactionaidforstiffermixes
.WMAadditivesandprocessesmaybeusedtoimprovethecompactibilityofstiffmixeswhenmixisproducedclosertotypicalHMAproductiontemperatures.Smallerreductionsintemperaturemayalsobepossible.ThereisextensiveexperiencewiththeuseofcertaintypesofWMAwithSMAinEurope.
IncreasedamountofRAP.
Research
9
hasshownthatthepercentageofreclaimedasphaltpavement(RAP)canbeincreasedinWMAcomparedtoHMAduringhotrecycling.
GenerationofcarboncreditsforIndia.
DevelopingcountrieslikeIndiacanearnCERs(CertifiedEmissionReductions)orpopularlyknownascarboncreditsundertheKyotoProtocoliftechnologiessuchasWMAareintroducedandimplemented.
 
3
Photo1.Emissioncanbeseenfromthehotmixasphaltat320F(160C)inlefttruck.Noemissionisvisiblefromthetruckinrightcontainingwarmmixasphaltat250F(121C).(Photocourtesy:MatthewCorrigan,FHWA)3.
WARMMIXASPHALTTECHNOLOGIES:FEATURESANDEVALUATION
AtthepresenttimeamixisconsideredwarmmixintheUSifthemixproducedattheplanthastemperatureexceeding100ºCbutsignificantlybelowthatofanormalhotmix.WMAhasawiderangeofproductiontemperaturesrangingfromslightlyover100ºCtoabout20to30ºCbelowtypicalHMAtemperatures.WMAtechnologiesarealsoapplicabletomixesmadewithpolymermodifiedasphaltbinders.WMAtechnologiescanbeclassifiedbroadly
5
as(a)thosethatusewater,(b)thosethatusesometypeoforganicadditiveorwax,(c)thosethatusechemicaladditivesorsurfactants.Technologieswhichintroducesmallamountsofwatertohotasphaltbindertakeadvantageofthephenomenon:whenwaterturnsintosteamatatmosphericpressureitexpandsinvolumebyafactorof1,673.Thiscausestremendousincreaseinthevolumeofasphaltbinderwhichnotonlyhelpsincoatingtheaggregateeasilybutalsolowersthemixapparentviscosity.Processestointroducewaterintotheasphaltbinderconsistoffoamingnozzles,useofhydrophilicmaterialsuchaszeoliteoruseofdampaggregate.Asphaltbindertemperaturetypicallyisthesameasthatusedforhotmixasphalt.Technologiesthatuseorganicadditivesorwaxeslowertheasphaltbinderviscosityabovetheirrespectivemeltingpoints.Itshouldbeensuredthattheirmeltingpoints

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