Major respiratory pathogen of young children and is theforemost cause of lower respiratory disease in infants. Transmitted by close contact with fingers or fomites as wellas through coarse (not fine) aerosols produced by coughingor sneezing.
Incubation period of 4 to 6 days.
Viral shedding may last two weeks in children but is much shorter in adults.
RhinorrheaLow-grade feverMild systemic symptomsCough and wheezing
25-40% with lower respiratory tract involvement Treatment:
Antiviral ribavirin for children and infants.No specific treatment for adults.
Single-stranded RNA virus of the Paramyxoviridae family.Important cause of mild illnesses and croup (laryngotracheobronchitis), bronchiolitis and pneumonia.
Cold or hoarseness with coughAcute febrile illness with coryzaBarking cough and frank stridor in children
In mild illness, treatment is symptom-based.Mild croup may be treated with moisturized air from avaporizer.More severe cases require hospitalization and closeobservation for development of respiratory distress.No specific antiviral treatment is available.
Infections occur frequently in infants and children with a seasonaldistribution of fall to spring.Certain serotypes are associated with outbreaks of acute respiratorydisease in military recruits. Transmission can take place via inhalation of aerosolized virus, throughthe inoculation of the conjunctival sac, and probably by the fecal-oral route.
RhinitisPharyngoconjunctival fever (bilateral conjunctivitis, low-gradefever, rhinitis, sore throat and cervical lymphadenopathy)In adults, the most frequent syndrome is the acuterespiratory disease seen in military recruits, with prominentsore throat, fever on the second or third day of illness, cough, coryza and regional lymphadenopathy.
Diagnosis and Treatment:
Diagnosis is established by isolation of the virus.No specific antiviral therapy is available.A live oral vaccine is available and used widely toprevent outbreaks among military recruits.
Acute Bacterial Sinusitis