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Ship Resistance and Propulsion

# Ship Resistance and Propulsion

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09/24/2013

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SHIP RESISTANCE AND PROPULSION
Page1. Similarity Theory and Phenomenological Methods. 21.1 Forms of resistance. 21.2 Dynamic similarity. 31.3 Resistance calculations. 52. Ship Resistance. 72.1 Frictional resistance. 72.2 Wave making resistance. 102.3 Other components of resistance. 132.4 Relation of hull form to resistance. 183. Ship Propulsion. 213.1 Powering of ships. 213.2 Propeller action. 223.3 Law of similitude for propellers. 233.4 Hull propeller interaction. 263.5 Cavitation. 283.6 Propeller selection and design. 31List of Figures. 36List of Tables. 371

1. Similarity Theory and Phenomenological Methods.
A ship diﬀers from land based large engineering structures in that, in addition to all itsother functions, it must be designed to move eﬃciently through the water with a minimumof external assistance. In Part I it has been shown how the engineer can ensure adequatebuoyancy and stability for a ship, intact or damaged. In Part II the problem of providingadequate structure for the support of the ship and its contents, both in calm water andrough seas was discussed.In this part we are concerned with the problems of ship resistance and propulsion. Thetask at hand is to ensure that, within the limits of other design requirements, the hullform and propulsion arrangement will be the most eﬃcient in the hydrodynamic sense. Theultimate test is that the ship shall perform at the required speed with the minimum of shaft power, and the problem is to attain the best combination of low resistance and highpropulsive eﬃciency. In general this can only be attained by a proper matching of hull,engine, and propeller.Another factor that inﬂuences the hydrodynamic design of a ship is the need to ensurenot only good calm water performance but also that under average service conditions at seathe ship shall not suﬀer from excessive motions, wetness of decks, or excessive speed loss.The assumption that a hull form that is optimum in calm waters will also be optimum inrough seas is not necessarily valid. Furthermore, a ship must be able to control its directionat will and keep its desired path through the water. The problem of ship motions, attainablespeed and added power requirements in waves, as well as maneuverability and controllabilityare discussed in Part IV.In Section 1 we approach ship resistance through an intuitive or phenomenological sense,while more rational ﬂuid mechanics considerations are reserved for Section 2. Ship propul-sion, propulsive eﬃciency, and propeller selection are discussed in Section 3.
1.1 Forms of resistance.
The resistance of a ship at a given speed is the force required to tow the ship at thatspeed in smooth water, assuming no interference from the towing ship. If the hull has noappendages, this is called the
bare–hull
or
towing
resistance, and although very near to, it isnot exactly the same as the
propulsion
resistance due to hull/propeller interactions.This total resistance is made up of a number of diﬀerent components, which are causedby a variety of factors and which interact with each other in a rather complex fashion. Inorder to deal with the question more eﬃciently, it is customary to consider the total
calm
water resistance as being made up of four main components.(a)
Frictional
resistance, due to the motion of the hull through a viscous ﬂuid.(b)
Wave making
resistance, due to the energy that must be supplied continuously bythe ship to the wave system created on the free surface.(c)
Eddy
resistance, due to the energy carried away by eddies shed from the hull orappendages. This is especially severe at the stern where the water may be unable to follow thecurvature and will break away from the hull, giving rise to eddies and separation resistance.(d)
Air
resistance experienced by the above–water part of the main hull and the super-2

structures due to the motion of the ship through the air.The resistances under (b) and (c) are commonly considered together (although they arisefrom diﬀerent physical mechanisms) under the name
residuary
resistance. Also a variety of other forms of resistance exists such as added resistance due to waves and the wave breakingresistance for a ship sailing in a seaway, and the added resistance due to turning (for surfaceships) and diving (for submarines). These are mentioned in the next part of the notes, undership dynamics.A streamlined body moving in a straight horizontal line at constant forward speed, deeplyimmersed in an unlimited ocean, presents the “simplest” (still far from trivial) case of re-sistance. Since there is no free surface, there is no wave formation and therefore no wavemaking resistance. For an ideal ﬂuid the velocity distribution past the hull will be greaterthan the speed of advance along the midportion, and in the region of bow and stern will beless, as shown in Figure 1. The pressure distribution as derived from Bernoulli’s law willfollow the inverse pattern: higher at the bow and stern, and lower in the middle. Since theﬂuid is assumed to be without viscosity, the pressure forces will everywhere be normal to thehull, and it can be shown that they will cancel out each other and the body will experienceno resistance (d’Alembert’s paradox).In a real ﬂuid, the boundary layer alters the virtual shape and length of the body,the pressure distribution at the stern is changed and its forward component is reduced.In this case there is a net force on the body acting against the motion, giving rise to aresistance which is variously referred to as
form drag
or viscous pressure drag. The body alsoexperiences frictional resistance and perhaps eddy resistance as well. The ﬂuid immediatelyin contact with the surface of the body is carried along with the surface, and that in theclose vicinity is set in motion in the same direction as that in which the body is moving.This results in a boundary layer which gets gradually thicker from the bow to the stern,and in which the velocity varies from that of the body at its surface to that appropriate tothe potential ﬂow pattern at the outer edge of the layer. The momentum supplied to thewater in the boundary layer by the hull is a measure of the frictional resistance. If the bodyis rather blunt at the after end the ﬂow may detach at some point, called the
separation point
, thus reducing the total pressure on the afterbody and adding to the resistance. Thisseparation resistance is evidenced by a pattern of eddies which is a drain of energy.A ship moving on the surface of the sea experiences all of the above forms of resistancein much the same way as does a submerged body. However, the presence of the free surfaceadds a further component. The resulting pressure distribution on the hull results in thecreation of a wave system which spreads out astern of the ship and has to be continuouslyrecreated. This corresponds to a drain of energy supplied by the ship and is termed the wavemaking resistance.A plot of the total resistance (eﬀective horsepower, EHP, per ton of displacement) versusthe speed–length ration
V/
L
(
in knots,
L
in feet) for diﬀerent types of ships is presentedin Figure 2.
1.2 Dynamic similarity.
Dimensional analysis which is the basis for similarity theory, is essentially a means of utilizing a partial knowledge of a problem when the details are too obscure to permit an3