1. Similarity Theory and Phenomenological Methods.
A ship diﬀers from land based large engineering structures in that, in addition to all itsother functions, it must be designed to move eﬃciently through the water with a minimumof external assistance. In Part I it has been shown how the engineer can ensure adequatebuoyancy and stability for a ship, intact or damaged. In Part II the problem of providingadequate structure for the support of the ship and its contents, both in calm water andrough seas was discussed.In this part we are concerned with the problems of ship resistance and propulsion. Thetask at hand is to ensure that, within the limits of other design requirements, the hullform and propulsion arrangement will be the most eﬃcient in the hydrodynamic sense. Theultimate test is that the ship shall perform at the required speed with the minimum of shaft power, and the problem is to attain the best combination of low resistance and highpropulsive eﬃciency. In general this can only be attained by a proper matching of hull,engine, and propeller.Another factor that inﬂuences the hydrodynamic design of a ship is the need to ensurenot only good calm water performance but also that under average service conditions at seathe ship shall not suﬀer from excessive motions, wetness of decks, or excessive speed loss.The assumption that a hull form that is optimum in calm waters will also be optimum inrough seas is not necessarily valid. Furthermore, a ship must be able to control its directionat will and keep its desired path through the water. The problem of ship motions, attainablespeed and added power requirements in waves, as well as maneuverability and controllabilityare discussed in Part IV.In Section 1 we approach ship resistance through an intuitive or phenomenological sense,while more rational ﬂuid mechanics considerations are reserved for Section 2. Ship propul-sion, propulsive eﬃciency, and propeller selection are discussed in Section 3.
1.1 Forms of resistance.
The resistance of a ship at a given speed is the force required to tow the ship at thatspeed in smooth water, assuming no interference from the towing ship. If the hull has noappendages, this is called the
resistance, and although very near to, it isnot exactly the same as the
resistance due to hull/propeller interactions.This total resistance is made up of a number of diﬀerent components, which are causedby a variety of factors and which interact with each other in a rather complex fashion. Inorder to deal with the question more eﬃciently, it is customary to consider the total
water resistance as being made up of four main components.(a)
resistance, due to the motion of the hull through a viscous ﬂuid.(b)
resistance, due to the energy that must be supplied continuously bythe ship to the wave system created on the free surface.(c)
resistance, due to the energy carried away by eddies shed from the hull orappendages. This is especially severe at the stern where the water may be unable to follow thecurvature and will break away from the hull, giving rise to eddies and separation resistance.(d)
resistance experienced by the above–water part of the main hull and the super-2