(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8 No. 8, 2010
shows the approximated histogram
of DCTcoefficient at position (3,3) of the luminance channel of anuncompressed Lena image and the histogram of the imageafter being JPEG compressed with quality factor 80. It is clearthat the latter contains periodic patterns that are not present inthe uncompressed version. It was observed that the coefficientis very likely to have been quantized with a step of thisperiodic . Now if that JPEG was stored in a bitmapuncompressed form, we expect the DCT coefficients to havethe same behavior because nothing is lost during this formatchange. This is evident in
which shows an identicalhistogram to the one in
. Hence, similar to theargument in , if we closely observe the histogram of
outside the main lobe, we notice that the maximum peak occurs at a value that is equal to the quantization step used toquantize
. This observation applies to most lowfrequency AC coefficients.
, theabsolute histograms of DCT coefficients for Lena of
at frequencies (3,3) and (3,4), respectively. As for highfrequencies, the maximum occurred at a value matching
Fig. 2 (c)
), where B is as follows:
u( c(u) c(v). B(i,j)(i,j) X (i,j) X
is the quantized coefficient, and
is theapproximated quantized coefficient,
is the round off error,and
otherwise for c
See [1, 11].
Sometimes we do not have enough information todetermine
for high frequencies
. This happens whenthe histogram outside the main lobe decays rapidly to zeroshowing no periodic structure. This reflects the small or zerovalue of the coefficient. At such cases, it can be useful toestimate as many of the low frequencies and then searchthrough lookup tables for a matching
table.Estimating the quantization table of a bitmap can helpdetermine part of its compression history. If all (or most of) of the low frequency steps were estimated to be ones, we canconclude that the image did not go through previouscompression. High frequencies may bias because they havevery low contribution and do not provide a good estimate.Moreover, this method works well also for uncompressed orlossless compressed tiff images.
shows the 96.7%correctly estimated
table using the above method of a tiff image taken from UCID [16
]. The X’s mark the“undetermined” coefficients.
Now for verifying the authenticity of the image, we use thesame distortion measures we used in . The averagedistortion measure is calculated as a function of theremainders of DCT coefficients with respect to the original
ij jiQ ji D B
are the DCT coefficient and thecorresponding quantization table entry at position
,respectively. An image block having a large average distortionvalue indicates that it is very different from what it should beand is likely to belong to a forged image. Averaged over theentire image, this measure can be used for making a decisionabout authenticity of the image.
In addition, the JPEG 8×8 “blocking effect” is somehow
still present in the uncompressed version and hence blockingartifact measure, BAM , can be used to give an estimate of
the distortion of the image. It is computed from the
ij jiQ ji Dround jiQ ji Dn B
is the estimated blocking artifact for the
(a) Lena image (b) Uncompressed(c) JPEG compressed
=6 (d) Previously compressed bmp
.(a) (b)(c) (d)
(3,3)| where H
(3,3)=6. (b) |
(3,4)| where H
(3,4) = 10 (c) |
(5,4)| where H
(7,5)| where H
(7,5) = 41.