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A Survey on Digital Image Enhancement Techniques

A Survey on Digital Image Enhancement Techniques

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Published by ijcsis
Image enhancement is one of the major research fields in image processing. In many applications such as medical application, military application, media etc., the image enhancement plays an important role. There are many techniques proposed by different authors in order to remove the noise from the image and produce the clear visual of the image. Also, there are many filters and image smoothing methods available. All these available techniques are designed for particular kind of noises. Recently, neural networks turn to be a very effective tool to support the image enhancement. Neural network is applied in image enhancement because it provides many advantages over the other techniques. Also, neural network can be suitable for removal of all kinds of noises based on its training data. This paper provides survey about some of the techniques applied for image enhancement. This survey deals with the several existing methods for image enhancement using neural networks.
Image enhancement is one of the major research fields in image processing. In many applications such as medical application, military application, media etc., the image enhancement plays an important role. There are many techniques proposed by different authors in order to remove the noise from the image and produce the clear visual of the image. Also, there are many filters and image smoothing methods available. All these available techniques are designed for particular kind of noises. Recently, neural networks turn to be a very effective tool to support the image enhancement. Neural network is applied in image enhancement because it provides many advantages over the other techniques. Also, neural network can be suitable for removal of all kinds of noises based on its training data. This paper provides survey about some of the techniques applied for image enhancement. This survey deals with the several existing methods for image enhancement using neural networks.

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Abstract---
Image enhancement is one of the major researchfields in image processing. In many applications such asmedical application, military application, media etc., theimage enhancement plays an important role. There are manytechniques proposed by different authors in order to removethe noise from the image and produce the clear visual of theimage. Also, there are many filters and image smoothingmethods available. All these available techniques are designedfor particular kind of noises. Recently, neural networks turn tobe a very effective tool to support the image enhancement.Neural network is applied in image enhancement because itprovides many advantages over the other techniques. Also,neural network can be suitable for removal of all kinds of noises based on its training data. This paper provides surveyabout some of the techniques applied for image enhancement.This survey deals with the several existing methods for imageenhancement using neural networks.
Keywords---
Image Enhancement, Image Denoising, NeuralNetwork, Image Filter, Image Restoration.I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 The intention of image enhancement is to improve theinterpretability or perception of data in images for humanvisual or to provide better input for other automated imageprocessing techniques.Image enhancement methods can be broadly divided into twocategories:
 
Spatial domain methods, which involves directoperation on image pixels, and
 
Frequency domain methods, which involves Fouriertransform of an image for its operation.Regrettably, there is no general theory for determining whatgood image enhancement is when it comes to humanperception. If it looks good, it is good! However, when imageenhancement methods are used as pre-processing tools forother image processing methods, then quantitative measurescan decide which techniques are most suitable.Image Restoration is the technique of retaining the originalimage from the degraded image given the knowledge of thedegrading factors. There are a variety of reasons that couldcause degradation of an image and image restoration is one of the key fields in today's Digital Image Processing due to itswide area of applications. Commonly occurring degradationsinclude blurring, motion and noise. Blurring can be causedwhen object in the image is outside the camera’s depth of fieldsometime during the exposure, whereas motion blur can becaused when an object moves relative to the camera during anexposure. The general model for image degradationphenomenon is given as y = Hf + n, where y is the observedblurred and noisy image, f is the original image, n is additiverandom noise and H is the blurring operator. The mainobjective is to estimate the original image from the observeddegraded image. Whatever the degraded process, imagedistortions can fall into two categories, namely, spatiallyinvariant or space invariant and spatially variant or spacevariant. In a space invariant distortion all pixels have sufferedthe same form of distortion. This is generally caused byproblems with the imaging system such as distortions inoptical system, global lack of focus, or camera motion. In aspace variant distortion, the degradation suffered by a pixel inthe image depends upon its location in the image. This isbecause of internal factors, such as distortions in the opticalsystem, or by external factors, such as object motion. Thissurvey provides many techniques available for imageenhancement.II.
 
L
ITERATURE
S
URVEY
 Uma
et al.,
[1] proposed a Morphological Neural Network forcolor image restoration. This paper considers the problem of color image restoration degraded by a blur function andcorrupted by random noise. A new approach developed bymultilayer morphological (MLM) neural network is presented,which uses highly nonlinear morphological neuron for imageprocessing to get a high quality restored color image. In thispaper color images are considered into RGB distribution. Theneach subspace can be considered as a gray image space and isprocessed by morphological way used in gray images. Thismethod is advantageous because of its low computationaloverhead, improved performance in terms of signal to noiseratio with less number of neurons.Gallo
et al.,
[2] presented an adaptive image restoration usinglocal neural approach. This work aims at usage of neurallearning for defining and experimentally evaluating aniterative strategy for blind image restoration in the presence of 
A Survey on Digital Image Enhancement Techniques
 
V.Saradhadevi
1
, Dr.V.Sundaram
21
Research scholar, Karpagam University,
2
Director of MCA , karpagam Engineering College, Coimbatore, India.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 8, November 2010173http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
blur and noise. A salient aspect of the solution is the localestimation of the restored image based on gradient descentstrategies able to estimate both the blurring function and theregularized terms adaptively. As an alternative of explicitlydefining the values of local regularization parameters throughpredefined functions, an adaptive learning approach isproposed.The various restoration techniques used currently can bebroadly viewed under two categories, namely, the transformrelated techniques and the algebraic restoration techniques [3].The transform related techniques involve analyzing thedegraded image after an appropriate transform has beenapplied. The two popular transform related techniques areinverse filtering and Kalman filtering [4]. Inverse filteringproduces a perfect restoration in the absence of noise, but thepresence of noise has very bad effects. The Kalman filterapproach can be applied to non stationary image but it iscomputationally very intensive.Algebraic techniques attempt to find a direct solution to thedistortion by matrix inversion techniques, or techniquesinvolving an iterative method to minimize a degradationmeasure. The two popular algebraic techniques available arepseudo inverse filtering and constrained image restoration.The pseudo inverse spatial image restoration techniquesattempt to restore an image by considering the vector spacemodel of the image degradation and attempting to restore theimage in this vector space domain. This method does notconsider the effects of noise in the calculations of the pseudoinverse and so is sensitive to noise in the image. This involvesdetermining an approximation to the inverse of the matrixblurring operator which is multiplied with the column scannedimage vector to produce the degraded image. Blur matrices arevery large and it is not computationally feasible to invert them.Constrained restoration techniques are often based on Wienerestimation and regression techniques. One of the majordrawbacks in most of the image restoration algorithms is thecomputational complexity, so various simplifying assumptionshave been made to obtain computationally feasible algorithms.Motivated by the biological neural network in which theprocessing power lies in a large number of neurons linkedwith synaptic weights, artificial neural network modelsattempt to achieve a good performance via denseinterconnection of simple computational elements. Neuralnetwork models have great potential in areas where highcomputation rates are required and the current best systems arefar from equaling human performance. Restoration of a highquality image from a degraded recording is a good applicationarea of neural nets. Joon
et al.,
[5] proposed a ModifiedHopfield neural network model for solving the restorationproblem which improves upon the algorithm proposed byZhou
et al
. [6].Osman
et al.,
[7] gives an image enhancement using brightand dark stretching techniques for tissue based tuberculosisbacilli detection. This paper proposes two methods for colorimage enhancement; bright stretching and dark stretchingalgorithms. Both techniques are well known to create goodimage enhancement for gray scale images. But, the currentstudy has adapted these techniques to be used for colorimages. Even though the adapted image processing method isquite simple, the results signify that these methods may havesome potential to be used for improving the quality of ZiehlNeelsen slide images. The experimental result illustrates thatboth methods proposed by the author can improve the imagecontrast and enhances the image quality when compared to itsconventional techniques. Pattern learning based image restoration using neural networksis put forth by Dillon
et al.,
[8]. The author illustrate a genericpattern learning based image restoration scheme for degradeddigital images, where a feed-forward neural network isemployed for implementation of the proposed techniques. Themethodology reported here can be applied in severalcircumstances, for instance, quality enhancement as a post-processing of image compression schemes, blur imagerestoration and noise image filter, provided that the trainingdata set is comprised of patterns rich enough for supervisedlearning. This paper focuses on the problem of coded imagerestoration. The key points addressed in this work are
 
The use of edge data extracted from source image asa priori knowledge in the regularization function toget better details and reduce the ringing artifact of thecoded images.
 
The theoretic basis of the pattern learning-basedtechnique using implicit function theorem.
 
Subjective quality improvement with the use of animage similarity for training neural networks
 
Empirical studies with contrast to the set partitioningin hierarchical tree (SPIHT) method.The main advantages of this model-based neural imagerestoration approach comprise strong robustness with respectto transmission noise and the parallel processing for real-timeapplications.Reeves [9] described fast and direct image restoration withedge-preserving regularization. In several applications, fastrestorations are required to keep up with the frame rate. FFT-based restoration affords a fast implementation, but it does soat the expense of assuming that the degree of regularization isconstant over the image. Unfortunately, this hypothesis cangenerate significant ringing artifacts in the presence of edgesas well as edges that are blurrier than necessary. Shift-variantregularization affords a way to vary the roughness penalty as afunction of spatial coordinates. Virtually all edge-preservingregularization techniques exploit this concept. However, thistechnique destroys the structure that makes the use of the FFTpossible, since the deblurring operation is no longer shift-invariant. Thus, the restoration techniques available for thisproblem no longer have the computational efficiency of theFFT. The author proposes a new restoration method for theshift-variant regularization approach that can be implementedin a fast and flexible manner. This paper decomposes therestoration into a sum of two independent restorations. Onerestoration yields an image that comes directly from an FFT-based approach. This image is a shift-invariant restorationconsisting of usual artifacts. The other restoration involves a
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 8, November 2010174http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
set of unknowns whose number equals the number of pixelswith a local smoothing penalty significantly different from thetypical value in the image. This restoration represents theartifact correction image. By summing the two, the artifactsare canceled. Since the second restoration has a significantlyreduced set of unknowns, it can be calculated very efficientlyeven though no circular convolution structure exists.Noise-refined image enhancement using multi-objectiveoptimization is illustrated by Peng
et al.,
[10]. This paperpresents a novel scheme for the enhancement of images usingstochastic resonance (SR) noise. In this scheme, a suitabledose of noise is added to the lower quality images such thatthe performance of a suboptimal image enhancer is improvedwithout altering its parameters. In this paper, imageenhancement is modeled as a constrained multi-objectiveoptimization (MOO) problem, with similarity and somedesired image enhancement characteristic being the twoobjective functions. The principle of SR noise-refined imageenhancement is analyzed, and an image enhancement systemis developed. A genetic algorithm-based MOO technique isemployed to find the optimum parameters of the SR noisedistribution. In addition, a novel image quality evaluationmetric based on human visual system (HVS) is developed asone of the objective functions to guide the MOO searchprocedure.Lu
et al.,
[11] proposed an image noise reduction techniquebased on the fuzzy rules. Considering the image as non-stationary signal, an image noise reduction method based onthe fuzzy rules is proposed. This image processing system(IPS) is recognized as a time-variant system in which thesystem parameters change continuously based on the localcharacteristics of the images. For the purpose of noisereduction, Gaussian noise is considered here. The fuzzy rulesare implemented to consider the unstableness and uncertaintyof signals. The nonlinear function indicating the fuzzy rule-based IPS depends on the rules concerning the localcharacteristics of the input, on the membership functions, andon the used defuzzification method. For making the systemperformance as high as possible, these factors must be agreedto be the most appropriate ones. In this paper a technique fordesigning the optimum nonlinear function directly from thelocal characteristics of training data is presented. Here therules, the membership functions, and the technique of defuzzification are not essential to be known. The design of these factors is concerned in the design of the membershipfunction, thus attaining the optimum nonlinear function issufficient for designing the IPS. The only thing required to dois to choose what sort of the local characteristics of the imageshould be applied to the rule-based system. Computersimulations illustrate that the proposed technique gives betterresults in comparison with that of the weighted averaging filterand median filter.An adaptive fuzzy image enhancement algorithm for localregions is given by Yan
et al.,
[12]. To overcome thedrawbacks of low speed and losing image information in fuzzyimage enhancement algorithms, a novel fuzzy enhancementoperator with close-character and transplantable-character isproposed in this paper. The approached operator utilizes thegradient operator to create the image enhancement processingfocus on the interested regions, and the OTSU operator toautomatically select the best threshold value, which can realizea novel adaptive fuzzy image enhancement algorithm for localregions. Through the experimentations of the asphaltpavement crack image detection system, the experimentalresults specify that the novel algorithm can not only attainbetter processing effects and higher processing speed thannow-available fuzzy image enhancement algorithms, but alsopossess the property of high practicability and generality.Faouzi
et al.,
[13] provides a directional-rational approach forcolor image enhancement. In this, the author presents anunsharp masking-based approach for noise smoothing andedge enhancing in multichannel images. The structurepresented by author is similar to the conventional unsharpmasking structure, however, the enhancement is allowed onlyin the direction of maximal change and the enhancementparameter is computed as a nonlinear function of the rate of change. This scheme improves the true details, limits theovershoot near sharp edges and attenuates noise in flat areas.In addition the use of the control function eliminates the needfor the subjective coefficient
λ
used in the conventionalunsharp masking method.The noise reduction based on fuzzy image filtering is put forthby Dimitri
et al.,
[14]. A new fuzzy filter is provided for thenoise reduction of images corrupted with additive noise. Thefilter involves two stages. The initial stage calculates a fuzzyderivative for eight different directions. The next stage usesthese fuzzy derivatives to carry out fuzzy smoothing byweighting the contributions of neighboring pixel values. Boththese stages are dependent on fuzzy rules which make use of membership functions. The filter can be implementediteratively to effectively decrease heavy noise. Especially, theshape of the membership functions is adapted according to theremaining noise level after each iteration; making use of thedistribution of the homogeneity in the image. A statisticaltechnique for the noise distribution can be included to relatethe homogeneity to the adaptation scheme of the membershipfunctions.Gacsadi
et al.,
[15] makes use of cellular neural network forthe purpose of image enhancement. This technique takes boththe denoising and the increase of the contrast intoconsideration. Due to whole parallel processing, computing-time reduction is achieved. In the enhancement process byusage of nonlinear and feedback template local and alsoregional properties will be taken into consideration due to thepropagation of the effect between the neighbors. Considerablecomputing power is required to solve the image processingtask described by variational computing. The Cellular NeuralNetworks (CNN) proved to be very useful regarding real-timeimage processing. The reduction of computing time, due toparallel processing, can be obtained only if the processingalgorithm can be implemented on a CNNUC or by usingemulated digital CNN-UM implemented on FPGAs.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 8, November 2010175http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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