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The Impact of Speed on the Performance of Dynamic Source Routing in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

The Impact of Speed on the Performance of Dynamic Source Routing in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

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Published by ijcsis
Ad-hoc networks are characterized by multihop wireless connectivity, frequently changing network topology and the need for efficient dynamic routing protocols plays an important role. Due to mobility in Ad-hoc network, the topology of the network may change rapidly. The mobility models represent the moving behavior of each mobile node in the MANET that should be realistic. This paper concerns performance of mobile Ad-hoc network (MANET) routing protocol with respect to the effects of mobility model on the performance of DSR protocol for the purpose of finding the optimal settings of node speed. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of DSR protocol using Random Waypoint Mobility Model in terms of node speed, number of connections, and number of nodes.
Ad-hoc networks are characterized by multihop wireless connectivity, frequently changing network topology and the need for efficient dynamic routing protocols plays an important role. Due to mobility in Ad-hoc network, the topology of the network may change rapidly. The mobility models represent the moving behavior of each mobile node in the MANET that should be realistic. This paper concerns performance of mobile Ad-hoc network (MANET) routing protocol with respect to the effects of mobility model on the performance of DSR protocol for the purpose of finding the optimal settings of node speed. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of DSR protocol using Random Waypoint Mobility Model in terms of node speed, number of connections, and number of nodes.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 8, November 2010
The Impact of Speed on the Performance of Dynamic Source Routing in Mobile Ad- Hoc Networks
Naseer Ali Husieen, Osman B Ghazali, Suhaidi Hassan, Mohammed M. KadhumInternetworks Research GroupCollege of Arts and SciencesUniversity Utara Malaysia06010 UUM Sintok, Malaysianaseerali@internetworks.my|{osman|suhaidi|kadhum}@uum.edu.my
 Abstract 
Ad-hoc networks are characterized bymultihop wireless connectivity, frequently changingnetwork topology and the need for efficient dynamicrouting protocols plays an important role. Due tomobility in Ad-hoc network, the topology of thenetwork may change rapidly. The mobility modelsrepresent the moving behavior of each mobile node inthe MANET that should be realistic. This paperconcerns performance of mobile Ad-hoc network(MANET) routing protocol with respect to the effectsof mobility model on the performance of DSRprotocol for the purpose of finding the optimalsettings of node speed. In this paper, we evaluate theperformance of DSR protocol using RandomWaypoint Mobility Model in terms of node speed,number of connections, and number of nodes.
 Keywords-MANET, Mobility Models, Routing Protocol, DSR Protocol.
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
With existing advances in technology, wirelessnetworks are growing in popularity. Wireless networkspermit users the freedom to move from one position toanother without break of their computing services. Ad-hoc networks is one of the subset of wireless network that dynamically forming a temporary network withoutusing any existing network infrastructure or centralizedadministration. A major problem in ad hoc network ishow to send data packets among mobile nodes efficientlywithout fixed topology or centralized control, which isthe most important goal of ad hoc routing protocols.Therefore, it is necessary a high-quality routing protocolin order to establish the link between the nodes, since themobile node can vary their topology regularly. In ad-hocnetwork the routing protocol is one of the importantissue and most challenging research area,
 
since mobilead-hoc network vary their topology frequently.Generally, the major task of routing in a network is todetect and keep the best path to send data packetsbetween source and target through intermediate nodes
.
There are two categories of routing protocols in ad hocnetworks:
 Protocols:
 
In this type of protocols such asDSDV, OLSR, consistent and up to-date routinginformation to all nodes is maintain at each node. ii.
Reactive Protocols
: In this type of 
 
protocols such asDSR, AODV, the routes are created when it’s required tosend data packets from the source to the destination [1].We have determined the impact of four factors on theperformance of DSR by using Random waypointmobility model in our previous paper [2] in press. Thesefactors pause time, network size, number of trafficsources and routing protocol. We examine the impact of these factors on four performance metrics: packetdelivery ratio, average end-to-end delay, normalizedrouting load and protocol overhead. In this paper, we useRandom waypoint as mobility model on DSR protocol tostudy the effect of node speed with other factors in orderto find the optimal setting for the node speed parameterwith different scenarios. For this performance study, weuse Network Simulator 2 (ns-2) version 2.34.II.
 
D
YNAMIC SOURCE ROUTING
(
 
DSR
 
)DSR is reactive and efficient protocol. It determinesthe correct path only when a packet wants to beforwarded. The node broadcast the network with a routerequest and builds the essential path from the responsesit receives. DSR allows the network to be fully self configuring with no need for any existing network infrastructure or administration. The DSR protocol iscomposed of two main mechanisms that work together toallow the discovery and maintenance of source routes inthe ad-hoc network. All aspects of protocol operateentirely on demand allowing routing packet overhead of DSR to scale up automatically [3] [4].
Route Discovery
: The example for route discoveryshown in Figure 1. When a source node 1 wants to senddata packets to the destination node 8, node 1 willbroadcast Route Request Packet (RREQ) to all theneighbor nodes 2, 3, 4. After intermediate nodes receivetheses packets will rebroadcast these packets to thedestination if there is no route in the route cache. Whenthe destination node 8 will receive RREQ, node 8 willinform the source node 1 by sending the Route ReplyPacket (RREP). The source node will start sending thedata packets to the destination through the intermediatenodes. This process mechanism called route discovery.
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 8, November 2010
Route Maintenance
: This mechanism contains twopackets; Route Error Packet (RERR) and ACKs packets.Route error packet generated when there is changing inthe network or node out of the transmission range whichcauses link failure. Intermediate node will send RERRto the source node. Source will check if there is route inthe route cache to send the packets to the destination, if there is no alternative route. Source node will reinitiateroute discovery process again. These processes will takelong delay to re-establish again in order to send the datapackets to the destination [5].
Fig.1. DSR Route Discovery
III.
 
R
ANDOM WAY POITN MODEL
 The Random waypoint model is widely and simplyused to evaluate the performance of ad hoc routingprotocols. The implementation of this model in thenetwork simulator (ns-2) is as follows: each mobile nodearbitrarily selects one position in the simulation field asthe target, then moves towards this target with fixvelocity selected uniformly and randomly from
[0,Vmax],
where the parameter
Vmax
is the maximumvelocity for each mobile node [6]. The velocity and pathof the nodes are selected separately from of other nodes.When will reaching the target, the node stops for aperiod of time defined by the ‘pause time’.In the Random waypoint model, velocity and pausetime
 
are two key parameters that determine the mobilityperformance of nodes. When the pause time is long andvelocity is small the topology of ad-hoc network becomes stable. On the other hand, when the mobilenode moves fast and the pause time
 
is small; thetopology is likely to be highly dynamic. Randomwaypoint model can create different mobility scenarioswith different levels of node speed. In Figure 2, showsthat node movement in the Random waypoint.
Fig.2. Traveling pattern of an MN using the Random WaypointMobility Model
IV.
 
RELATED WORK
 In the recent years, several works has been done byPerkins, Hughes and Owen [7] shows that someparameters such as pause time, node speed, increasingthe number of nodes, and increase the number of sources can have an effect on the routing protocolsperformance. In their work Random waypoint modelhas been used, but employed Global Mobile SystemSimulator (GloMoSim) rather than
ns-2
.Azzedine Baoukerche has comparing four routingprotocols such as (AODV, PAODV, DSR, and CBRP)[8]. The simulation parameters were tested in his paperwith maximum number of nodes 25 and low traffic withmaximum speed 20 m/s. However, our work tested withvarious numbers of nodes (10, 20, 40, and 80) withdifferent source connections (4, 8, 30, and 40) whichcan make high traffic and various speed 20, 40, 60, and80.Yogesh, Yudhvir, and Manish, they have comparedand analysis two reactive routing protocols such asAODV, DSR [9]. The main objective in their paper toevaluate the performance of these two protocols basedon the packet delivery fraction, end –to-end delay, andnormalized routing load. The simulation parameterswere tested increasing number on nodes and variouspause times with fixed maximum speed (0-25 m/sonly). While our work with various maximum speeds inorder to select the optimal setting for maximum speed.V.
 
S
IMULATION
S
ETUP
 The MANET network simulations are implementedusing Random waypoint model which can generate byusing movement tool (setdest) in ns-2 simulator. Thesimulation period for each scenario is 200 seconds andthe simulated mobility network area is 1000 m x 500 mrectangle. Simulation runs are made with the number of random traffic Constant Bit Rate (CBR) which cangenerate by using (cbgen.tcl). Figure 2, it shows that the
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 8, November 2010
simulation methodology for our implementation. Therest of simulation parameters shown in the Table below.
TABLE I. SIMULATION PARAMETERSFig.3. Simulation Methodology
VI.
 
PERFORMANCE METRICS
 We have consider packet delivery ratio, end to end delay,protocol control overhead and normalized routing loadas a metrics during our simulation in order to evaluatethe performance of the DSR protocol.
 Packet Delivery Fractions (PDF):
the packet deliveryratio is calculated by dividing the number of packetsreceived by the destination through the number of originates packets by the application layer of the initiator.PDF is specifying the loss packets rate, which limits themaximum throughput over the entire network. The morecomplete and correct routing protocol, the better packetdelivery ratio.
Equation.1 PDF
 Average end to end delay
: this is defined as the averagedelay in transmission of a packet between two nodes andis calculated as follows:
n
AED = ∑
=
0
Time packet received
 –time packet sent
Total number of packets received
 
Equation.2 AED
A higher value of end-to-end delay means that thenetwork is congested and hence the routing protocoldoes not perform well. The upper bound on the values of end-to-end delay is determined by the application.
 Protocol Control Overhead:
 
This is the ratio of thenumber of protocol control packets transmitted to thenumber of data packets received.
 Normalized routing load:
 
this is calculated as the ratiobetween the numbers of routing packets transmitted tothe number of packets actually received (thus accountingfor any dropped packets):
Equation.3 NRL
This metric gives an analysis of routing protocolefficiency, since the number of routing packets sent perdata packet gives an idea of how well the protocolmaintains the routing information updated. The lowerof NRL, the lower the overhead of routing protocol andconsequently the higher the efficiency of the protocol.VII.
 
R
ESULTS AND DISCUSSION
 In this section, details of the simulation results in termof packet-delivery fraction, average end to end delay,protocol overhead, and normalized routing load. All theresults were obtained by averaging 5 times over thesimulation for every scenario in order to select theoptimal setting for the maximum speed.
i.
 
Packet Delivery Fraction (PDF)
This metric with high packet delivery ratio, routingprotocol will be more efficient. Figure 4, shows thatpacked delivery ratio is decreased in first scenariowhenever increasing node speed. As above stated, ithas been taken four main scenarios and each of thismain contains four sub-scenarios which means 4x4 =16 scenarios have been taken in this experiment. Ineach of these experiments of sub-scenarios, the nodespeed increases while other parameters are constant. InFigure 4, shows that the optimal setting is 20 speedsamong all of the four scenarios in term of packetdelivery ratio.
 Parameters Value
Simulation Time 200 s No. of Nodes 10, 20, 40, 80 No. of connections 4, 8, 30, 40Pause Time 40 sSimulation Area 1000 x 500 mTraffic Type Constant Bit Rate (CBR) Maximum Speed 20 ,40,60,80 m/s Mobility Model Random Waypoint  Routing Protocol DSR MAC Type 802.11
230http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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