Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
3Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
GCC license plates detection and recognition using morphological filtering and neural networks

GCC license plates detection and recognition using morphological filtering and neural networks

Ratings: (0)|Views: 482 |Likes:
Published by ijcsis
License Plate Recognition (LPR) systems play an important role in intelligent transportation applications. These systems have extensively been used in highway and bridge charge, port, airport gate monitoring, parking and toll applications, to mention a few. We propose here an automatic license plate detection and recognition system for GCC countries license plates containing Arabic letters and numerals. The system introduces a robust algorithm for the extraction of the license plate region using adaptive thresholding and morphological filtering. The recognition stage is based on extracting LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis) features with a neural network classifier. Preliminary experiments on the system have been carried with real images of vehicles captured under various conditions. The proposed system is shown to achieve high recognition accuracy under different illumination conditions.
License Plate Recognition (LPR) systems play an important role in intelligent transportation applications. These systems have extensively been used in highway and bridge charge, port, airport gate monitoring, parking and toll applications, to mention a few. We propose here an automatic license plate detection and recognition system for GCC countries license plates containing Arabic letters and numerals. The system introduces a robust algorithm for the extraction of the license plate region using adaptive thresholding and morphological filtering. The recognition stage is based on extracting LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis) features with a neural network classifier. Preliminary experiments on the system have been carried with real images of vehicles captured under various conditions. The proposed system is shown to achieve high recognition accuracy under different illumination conditions.

More info:

Published by: ijcsis on Dec 04, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/19/2011

pdf

text

original

 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 8, November 2010
GCC License Plates Detection and Recognition UsingMorphological Filtering and Neural Networks
Mohamed Deriche
Dept. of Electrical EngineeringKing Fahd University of Petroleum & MineralsDhahran 31261, Saudi Arabiamderiche@kfupm.edu.sa
 Abstract 
 — 
License Plate Recognition (LPR) systems play animportant role in intelligent transportation applications. Thesesystems have extensively been used in highway and bridgecharge, port, airport gate monitoring, parking and tollapplications, to mention a few. We propose here an automaticlicense plate detection and recognition system for GCC countrieslicense plates containing Arabic letters and numerals. The systemintroduces a robust algorithm for the extraction of the licenseplate region using adaptive thresholding and morphologicalfiltering. The recognition stage is based on extracting LDA(Linear Discriminant Analysis) features with a neural network classifier. Preliminary experiments on the system have beencarried with real images of vehicles captured under variousconditions. The proposed system is shown to achieve highrecognition accuracy under different illumination conditions.
 Keywords-component; license palte recognition, LDA, Arabiccharacter recognition; GCC countries
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 
In recent years, research on intelligent transportationsystems (ITS) has gained a lot of attention. Such systems cover a multitude of technologies subdivided into intelligentinfrastructure systems and intelligent vehicle systems [13]. Asone of main forms of ITS technology, Automatic License PlateRecognition (ALPR) is an important technique that is used for the identification of vehicles. There are many applications thatcould benefit from such technology including entranceadmission, security, parking control, airport or cargo control,road traffic control, speed control, toll gate automation, and soon. The two main components of any ALPR system are: platelocalization & segmentation, and character segmentation &recognition. The inaccurate detection of the plate andcharacters leads to a useless recognition stage. On the othehand, character recognition is an essential and important step inany ALPR system, which influences significantly the overallaccuracy and processing speed of the whole system [2, 14].The problem is that most researchers either focus on platedetection or character recognition, but not on both. For localization and character segmentation, we usually need to usesome edge detection algorithm so that the final outputsegmented characters are binary images. In this respect, we propose to use morphological filtering followed by a robust binarisation algorithm using a novel adaptive thresholdingtechnique. For the recognition stage, most previous work concentrated on using artificial neural networks (ANN) [16].ANNs can achieve promising performance if the quality of thegiven image is good. However, the quality of images taken inreal applications is not always high. This is due to the operatingconditions (e.g. dust) and distortion or degradation due to poor image acquisition environment/equipment. Experiments haveshown that it is difficult to achieve high recognition rates only by feeding the data from the images into the neural network [3]. In this paper, we propose to preprocess the segmentedcharacter images using a Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA)to transform such images into small dimension feature vectors,then use these vectors as inputs to the ANN classifier.Preliminary work on the system has been carried on realimages of vehicles captured under various illuminationconditions with excellent overall performance compared toexisting systems dealing with Arabic characters. It is worthnoting that there were very few attempts, to date, in developingrobust ALPR systems that support Arabic, Latin characters,and numerals.
II.
 
B
ACKGROUND
 
Before presenting the proposed system, a brief discussionwill be given on current ALPR systems for Arabic, and Latincharacters, in addition to number-based car plates systems. Atypical ALPR system is composed of the following steps (seeFig. 1):
A.
 
 License Plate Region Extraction
Such a step is very critical to the success of any ALPR system.Park et. al. [4] developed a model for extracting Koreanlicense plates based on color while Kim [5] proposed a systemto extract the plate based on the Hough transform method.Hontani et. al. [6] developed a method for extracting the platewithout knowing its position and the image size. Their approach was based on a scale shape analysis. Ahmed et. al. [7] proposed a vertical edge detection algorithm followed by edgematching based on the size and B/W ratio of the plate. Numerous other techniques have also been proposed in theliterature, see references [12] for a detailed survey of suchtechniques.
263http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 8, November 2010
Fig. 1: A Typical ALPR system
 
B.
 
 License Plate Segmentation
Before any classification can be carried out, there is a needto segment the license plate characters from the extracted plate.Fortunately for Arabic characters based LPR systems, like inGCC countries, all the characters are in their isolated form.Exception is the country name, which can be easily isolatedand dealt with separately. This makes the segmentation stagesimple as can be seen in the next section [16].
C.
 
 License Plate Recognition
A number of statistical, syntactic, and neural approacheshave been developed for the recognition stage. Cowell andHussain [8] identified the characters based on the number of  black pixel rows and columns of the character and comparisonof the values to a set of templates or signatures in a database.Furthermore, the thinning of Arabic characters was alsodiscussed in [9] to extract essential structural information of each character, which is then used for the classification stage.Template matching was proposed by Zidouri [7]. Thisapproach involves the use of a database of character or templates, and for each possible input character there is aseparate template. Correlation techniques are generally used toidentify the difficult characters.A structural or syntactic approach to recognize characters in atext document was adopted by Hamami [10]. This techniqueyields better results when applied on individual characters.However, since this approach is based on the detection of holesand concavities in the four directions (up, down, left, andright), it may not be appropriate for Arabic characters with lowresolution but may work for numerals. Additionally, secondarycharacteristics are used in order to differentiate between thecharacters. Numerous systems have used neural networks for recognition [11]. Such systems as usually very effective,however their accuracy depends heavily on the size of thetraining data [12,17].
III.
 
T
HE
P
ROPOSED
ALPR 
 
S
YSTEM
The proposed system in Fig. 2 and 3 is intended for a parking application in the GCC countries. Our preliminaryexperiments were carried out for Saudi license plates for themoment with a plan for extending the coverage to all GCCcountries and beyond.Fig. 2: The Proposed ALPR systemFig. 3: Flow chart of the proposed algorithmThe system starts first by acquiring the image of the car containing the LP region (we used in our experiments frontalimages). Sample images taken in our experiments are displayedin Fig. 4. Next, the license plate of the car is extracted byInput image
IdentifiedCar or Rejection
LP RegionDetectionCharacter Extraction & NormalizationRecognitionof characters
264http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 8, November 2010
applying a series of operations. The extracted LP region isfurther divided into individual characters. For recognition, theisolated characters are then transformed and fed into a pre-trained neural network.The sequence of recognized characters is then checked with adatabase. If the car is recognized, the system would thencommand the authorization for access or for billing or for sending the number plate to a central computer for further  processing depending upon the application of interest.The candidate LP region extraction is the key step in anLPR system, which influences the accuracy of the systemsignificantly. The goal of this phase is, given an input image, to produce a number of regions that have high probability of containing a license plate. In the adopted approach, theextraction of the candidate region from a set of probableregions is carried out in four steps. These are explained in thefollowing subsections.Fig. 4: Sample images from the database
A.
 
 License Plate Extraction
The LP extraction is the main step in the overall system.The accuracy of this step affects the accuracy of the wholesystem significantly. This phase extracts the region of interest,i.e. the license plate from the acquired image. This stepconsists of three stages:
1)
 
 Edge Detection
First of all, the acquired image should be converted from acolor RGB image into a gray level image (see Fig. 5). Differentgradient-based edge detectors were implemented. In our experiments, the Canny edge detector was used. The CannyEdge Detector was shown to achieve low error rate, localizededge points, and a single point edge response (see Fig. 6). Wenoticed from the collected data, that most car images exhibitedmore horizontal lines than vertical lines.Fig. 5: The original acquired image & its gray-scale imageFig. 6: Detected
edges using Canny’s method and edge
enhancement using a thickening mask 
Although the Canny’s Edge Detector proved to be the
 best technique for detecting the LP region, an additionalmask was required to enhance the detected edges. Thethickening mask is used for this purpose. The thickeningoperation is the dual of morphological thinning and helps instrengthening the edge structure of the image (see Fig. 6).
2)
 
 Detecting the Closed Boundaries of the LP Candidate Regions
By tracing the pixels in the edge detected image, theclosed structures are considered as boundaries of candidateLP regions. Tracing is carried using a 8- neighborhoodscheme. After tracing the connected pixels, a set of pre-defined conditions is then used on these boundaries for identifying the closed contours that are LP mostly likelycandidates. The conditions we use for this purpose are:
 
Length and Shape Filtering: This step is based on a pixelcounting approach. In our specific application, the lengthof the LP usually ranges between 1000 and 2400 pixels(from training). Our approach is to trace all boundarieswithin the given image, and select the boundariescontaining between 1000 and 2400 pixels.
 
Width/Length Ratio: The standard ratio of width to heightin normal Saudi license plates is 2:1. To take intoconsiderations small angle deviations, we used a ratiorange of 1.3 to 2.7. As for long license plates, the ratio isaround five (practically, between 3 and 5.5). If the areaunder study satisfies the above conditions, it is then seenas a good LP candidate.
 
Black to White Ratio: Normal Saudi license plates arewhite with black characters. It is found that the black to
265http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

Activity (3)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads
nuredd liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->