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Localization Accuracy Improved Methods Based on Adaptive Weighted Centroid Localization Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks

Localization Accuracy Improved Methods Based on Adaptive Weighted Centroid Localization Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks

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Published by ijcsis
Generally, see Localization of nodes is a key technology for application of wireless sensor network. Having a GPS receiver on every sensor node is costly. In the past, several approaches, including range-based and range-free, have been proposed to calculate positions for randomly deployed sensor nodes. Most of them use some special nodes, called anchor nodes, which are assumed to know their own locations. Other sensors compute their locations based on the information provided by these anchor nodes. This paper uses a single mobile anchor node to move in the sensing field and broadcast its current position periodically. We provide an adaptive weighted centroid localization algorithm that uses coefficients, which are decided by the influence of mobile anchor node to unknown nodes, to prompt localization accuracy. We also suggest a criterion which is used to select mobile anchor node which involve in computing the position of nodes for improving localization accuracy. The localization accuracy of adaptive weighted centroid localization algorithm is better than maximum likelihood estimation which is used very often
Generally, see Localization of nodes is a key technology for application of wireless sensor network. Having a GPS receiver on every sensor node is costly. In the past, several approaches, including range-based and range-free, have been proposed to calculate positions for randomly deployed sensor nodes. Most of them use some special nodes, called anchor nodes, which are assumed to know their own locations. Other sensors compute their locations based on the information provided by these anchor nodes. This paper uses a single mobile anchor node to move in the sensing field and broadcast its current position periodically. We provide an adaptive weighted centroid localization algorithm that uses coefficients, which are decided by the influence of mobile anchor node to unknown nodes, to prompt localization accuracy. We also suggest a criterion which is used to select mobile anchor node which involve in computing the position of nodes for improving localization accuracy. The localization accuracy of adaptive weighted centroid localization algorithm is better than maximum likelihood estimation which is used very often

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 8, November 2010
Localization Accuracy Improved Methods Based onAdaptive Weighted Centroid Localization Algorithmin Wireless Sensor Networks
Chang-Woo Song, Jun-Ling Ma,Jung-Hyun Lee
Department of InformationEngineering, INHA University,Incheon, Korea,up3125@hotmail.com
Kyung-Yong Chung
Department of ComputerInformation Engineering, SangjiUniversity, Wonju, Korea
Kee-Wook Rim
Department of Computer andInformation Science, SunmoonUniversity, Asan, Korea
 Abstract
—Generally, see Localization of nodes is a key technologyfor application of wireless sensor network. Having a GPSreceiver on every sensor node is costly. In the past, severalapproaches, including range-based and range-free, have beenproposed to calculate positions for randomly deployed sensornodes. Most of them use some special nodes, called anchor nodes,which are assumed to know their own locations. Other sensorscompute their locations based on the information provided bythese anchor nodes. This paper uses a single mobile anchor nodeto move in the sensing field and broadcast its current positionperiodically. We provide an adaptive weighted centroidlocalization algorithm that uses coefficients, which are decided bythe influence of mobile anchor node to unknown nodes, toprompt localization accuracy. We also suggest a criterion whichis used to select mobile anchor node which involve in computingthe position of nodes for improving localization accuracy. Thelocalization accuracy of adaptive weighted centroid localizationalgorithm is better than maximum likelihood estimation which isused very often.
 Keywords-component; Weighted Centroid Algorithm; WirelessSensor Networks; Localization;
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 A wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of spatiallydistributed autonomous sensors to cooperatively monitorphysical or environmental conditions, such as temperature,sound, vibration, pressure, motion or pollutants. Thedevelopment of wireless sensor networks was motivated bymilitary applications such as battlefield surveillance. They arenow used in many industrial and civilian application areas,including industrial process monitoring and control, machinehealth monitoring, environment and habitat monitoring,healthcare applications, home automation, and traffic control.A sensor network normally constitutes a wireless ad-hocnetwork, meaning that each sensor supports a multi-hop routingalgorithm (several nodes may forward data packets to the basestation). In computer science and telecommunications, wirelesssensor networks are an active research area with numerousworkshops and conferences arranged each year. Theapplications for WSNs are varied, typically involving somekind of monitoring, tracking, or controlling. Specificapplications include habitat monitoring, object tracking,nuclear reactor control, fire detection, and traffic monitoring. Ina typical application, a WSN is scattered in a region where it ismeant to collect data through its sensor nodes.A sensor network is composed of a large number of sensornodes that are densely deployed in a field. Each sensorperforms a sensing task for detecting specific events. The sink,which is a particular node, is responsible for collecting sensingdata reported from all the sensors, and finally transmits the datato a task manager. If the sensors can’t directly communicatewith the sink, some intermediate sensors have to forward thedata [1].There are several essential issues (e.g., localization,deployment, and coverage) in wireless sensor networks.Localization is one of the most important subjects for wirelesssensor networks since many applications such as environmentmonitoring, vehicle tracking and mapping depend on knowingthe locations of the sensor nodes. In addition, with location-based routing protocols, both routing and data forwarding aredetermined based on the geographic location [2].To solve the localization problem, it is natural to considerplacing sensors manually or equipping each sensor with a GPSreceiver. However, due to the large scale nature of sensornetworks, those two methods become either inefficient orcostly, so researchers propose to use a variety of localizationapproaches for sensor network localization.These approaches can be classified as range-based andrange-free. Firstly, the range-based approach uses an absolutenode-to-node distance or angle between neighboring sensors toestimate locations. Common techniques for distance or angleestimation include received signal strength indicator (RSSI),time of arrival (TOA), time difference of arrival (TDOA), andangle of arrival (AOA). The approaches typically have higherlocation accuracy but require additional hardware to measuredistances or angles. Secondly, the range-free approach does notneed the distance or angle information for localization, anddepends only on connectivity of the network and the contents
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 8, November 2010
of received messages. For example, Centroid method, APITmethod, DV-HOP method, Convex hull, Bounding box, andAmorphous algorithm have been proposed [3][4][5]. Althoughthe range-free approach cannot accomplish as high precision asthe range-based [6], they provide an economic approach. Dueto the inherent characteristics (low power and cost) of wirelesssensor networks, the range-free mechanism could be a betterchoice to localize a sensor’s position, so we pay more attentionto range-free approach in this paper.This paper uses a single mobile anchor node as thereference node, which is required to move in the sensing fieldand broadcast its current position periodically. Sensor nodesreceive the position information of the mobile node andlocalize themselves to the centroid of these positions by usingadaptive weighted centroid algorithm. The algorithm based onthe Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI). The results of simulations show that the method is a practical method that canbe used in real-world system, and is also a method whoseprinciple is simple, less computing and communication, is lowcost, and provides flexible accuracy.II.
 
R
ELATED
W
ORK
 In the past several years, extensive research has been doneon localization for wireless sensor networks. A general surveyis found in. Here we provide only a brief survey about range-free approaches and localization method, which involve mobilereference nodes. Some nodes are equipped with specialpositioning devices that are aware of their locations. Thesenodes are called anchor nodes or reference nodes. Other nodesthat do not initially know their locations are called unknownnodes or sensor nodes. Generally, an unknown node canestimate its location by range-based or range-free methods if three or more anchors are available in its coverage field.Obviously, the number and position of anchor nodes have anoticeable influence on the localization precision.The main idea of localization with a mobile anchor node isas follows: After sensor deployment, a mobile anchor nodetraverses the sensor network while broadcasting anchorpackets, which contain the coordinates of the anchor node.Sensor nodes receiving anchor packets could infer theirdistance from a mobile anchor node and use thesemeasurements as constraints to construct and maintain positionestimates. These methods have a common feature: they userange-based approaches. Though they can reach fine resolution,either the required hardware is expensive (ultrasound devicesfor TDOA, antenna arrays for AOA) or the results depend onother unrealistic assumptions about signal propagation (forexample, the actual received signal strengths of radio signalscan vary when the surrounding environment changes). Due tothe hardware limitations of sensor devices, range-freeapproaches are a cost effective alternative to a more expensiverange-based approach. A simple algorithm proposed, computeslocation as the centroid of its proximate anchor nodes. Analternate solution, DV-Hop, extends the single hop broadcast tomultiple-hop flooding, so that sensors can find their distancefrom the anchors in terms of hop counts. An amorphouspositioning scheme adopts a similar strategy as DV-Hop; themajor difference is that Amorphous improves locationestimates using offline hop-distance estimations throughneighbor information exchange. Another existing range-freescheme is an APIT algorithm. APIT resolves the localizationproblem by isolating the environment into triangular regionsbetween anchor nodes. A node uses the point-in-triangle test todetermine its relative location with triangles formed by anchorsand thus narrows down the area in which it probably resides.APIT defines the center of gravity of the intersection of alltriangles that a node resides in as the estimated node location[7][8][9].Based on these analyses, localization using a single mobileanchor node would be more economical. In addition,considering the constraints in computing and memory power of sensors, we adopted the weighted centroid method with asingle mobile anchor to locate sensors in wireless sensornetworks. Depending on the method used for ranging, anappropriate localization technique is applied in the secondphase. The following localization strategies have beenproposed.
 A.
 
Trilateration
This is one of the more popular strategies and is used whenthe exact distances between known points and an object to belocated are available. Fig. 1 shows when the distance betweenan object and three points are given, the object's location x canbe computed as the intersection of three circles centered at theknown points.
Figure 1. Example of Trilateration
 B.
 
 Bounded Intersection
The trilateration technique works well when the threecircles intersect at a single point, but this is rarely the casewhen estimates are used in ranging. For example, when usingincremental stepping of transmission power for ranging,maximum values can be used for estimating the distances. Fig.2 shows The object to be located would fall into a geometricregion that is the intersection of three circles.
Figure 2. Localization with Maximum Bounds
285http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 8, November 2010
C.
 
Triangulation
The triangulation method is useful if the angle between twoobjects can be measured. Fig. 3 shows an example. Suppose P1and P2 are points with known locations and X is an object to belocated. Nodes P1 and P2 can measure angles a1 and a2 , and,with known distance Sx , one can easily compute ax , S1 andS2.
Figure 3. Example of Triangulation
 D.
 
 Maximum Likelihood 
When estimates are used for ranging, it is possible that theregion of intersection is empty. This will occur if at least oneranging estimate is too small. One method that overcomes thisproblem selects the point for localization that gives theminimum total error between measured estimates anddistances. In Fig. 4, distance estimates (d1, d2, d3) are madebetween the object to be located and three points (P1, P2, P3) .The errors (e1, e2, e3) are computed by finding the differencebetween the actual Euclidean distances and the rangingestimates.
Figure 4. Localization with Maximum Likelihood
III.
 
A
DAPTIVE
W
EIGHTED
C
ENTROID
L
OCALIZATION
M
ETHOD
 
 A.
 
 Method of Localization
This method can be used in large-scale field environment.Figure 1 illustrates the system environment where a sensornetwork consists of a mobile anchor node and unknown nodesthat could be scattered from a plane or from a mortar shell. Themobile anchor is a human operator or an unmanned vehicledeployed with the sensor network. If the network is deployedby plane scattering, this anchor can be even the plane itself.The unknown nodes are the nodes of initially unknownpositions. Once the nodes are deployed, they will stay at theirlocations to conduct the sensing task. The mobile anchor,which is a node aware of its location (e.g. equipped with GPS),and is able to traverse for assisting the sensors to determineother node locations [10]. The mobile anchor node needs totraverse over the entire region in order to cover all sensornodes. This can be done by driving the mobile anchor node tomove in a spiral trajectory. Obviously there are many otheroptions to moving trajectory. Finding an optimal trajectory tocover all sensor nodes can be a research topic for our futurework. No matter which trajectory is used, the location of themobile anchor node on the trajectory should be known. At thesame time, we assume that the mobile anchor has sufficientenergy for moving and broadcasting its information during thelocalization process. The speed of the mobile anchor isadjustable and unrestricted, but uniform in the process of location.We used an idealized radio model for wirelesscommunication because it was simple and easy to reasonmathematically. We assumed that our idealized model isperfect spherical radio propagation and has identicaltransmission range (power) for all radio positions as shown inFig. 5. It is a sphere with the anchor as its center and thebroadcasting radius R as its radius. Only the sensors within therange are assumed capable of receiving the information sent bythe anchor.
Figure 5. System Environment with a Mobile Anchor Node
In this paper, we proposed the location of mobile anchornode influence: In the localization algorithm, location of mobile anchor node has influence to the unknown nodes, RSSIbigger location, and the greater influence on the location of sensor nodes. When Unknown node received multiple mobileanchor node position signal then unknown node by the impactof these locations. Location of largest RSSI has the greatestpower to decide to the position of sensor node.Signal selection principle: An unknown node may receivemultiple signals of positions from the mobile anchor node.RSSI value should be the largest of several signals positioncalculation. Location computed to ensure that the signalsinvolved in more than three. Will be distances of more than Rthe location of mobile anchor node removed, so as to avoid theexpansion of the positioning error. Behind the simulationproves this point.
 B.
 
 Adaptive Weighted Centroid Localization Algorithm
Through the front of the Analysis, can find commoncentroid algorithm, did not reflect the mobile anchor node'sinfluence, affecting the localization accuracy. To enhance thelocalization accuracy, in this paper we used the adaptiveweighted centroid localization algorithm. Its main idea: In thealgorithm, mobile anchor node confronts the right to decide thelocation of the centroid through weighted factor to reflect. Theuse of weighted factor reflected the intrinsic relationshipbetween them.
286http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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