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Midas and the Phrygians

Midas and the Phrygians

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In memoriam: for my Alexandrian friend Dr. Levon Topouzian (a friend himself of the great U of Chicago linguist scholar Dr. Eric P. Hamp), who first made me aware of the linguistic connections between Greek and Armenian.
In memoriam: for my Alexandrian friend Dr. Levon Topouzian (a friend himself of the great U of Chicago linguist scholar Dr. Eric P. Hamp), who first made me aware of the linguistic connections between Greek and Armenian.

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Categories:Types, Research, History
Published by: Μιλτιάδης Ηλ. Μπόλαρης on Dec 05, 2010
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved


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Midas and thePhrygians
Macedonian names and makeDONSKI pseudo-linguistics: The case of the names Mita and the Mushki
Miltiades Elia BolarisChicago, 2020
Balkan Illusion - phantasia archaica:"...it is very interesting to note that many of the authentic ancient Macedonianwords, according to their etymology and pronunciation, have a striking resemblanceto the appropriate words used in the modern Macedonian language (and other socalled "Slav"[sic] languages)."…" We would also mention the name of a Brygiantribe, the "Mushki", who lived in the 9th century before Christ. Their name is identical to the noun "mushki" (men), which exists in other "Slavic"languages. Their king was called Mita a name which remains unchanged in a number of "Slavic"languages."Quote taken from: "Similarities between ancient Macedonian and today's'Macedonian Culture (Linguistics and Onomastics)" by Aleksandar Donski, celebritypropagandist-historian from FYROM.Mushki / Mύσιοι - Phrygians/ΦρύγεςMita/Midas/ΜίδαςIn our search for the Mushki we will start at the easternmost location where theyhave been said to be located, in the Caucasian highlands of the ancient Moschoi:the area now called Meskheti. Meskheti / მესხეთი is a mountainous region of Georgia on the Caucasus. It takes its name after the ancient Georgian tribe of theMeskhi whom the Greeks called Moschoi and their region Moschia. The Meskhi, likeall Georgians speak a Kartvelian language, which is a linguistic family indigenous tothe Caucasus, distinct from, and unrelated to the Indo-European languages.Stephanos Byzantios in his 5th c.AD "Ethnika" dictionary of ancient nationsmentions them as follows:Mόσχοι, Κόλχιον έθνος προσεχές τοις Ματιηνοίς. Εκαταίος Ασία.Moschoi, a Kolchian nation that lives next to the Matienoi, as Hecataeos (of Miletos,c. 550 - 476 BCE) mentions in his book on Asia.Meskheti is the modern Samtskhe-Javakheti region of Georgia. Hecataeos´ Matienoi(also known as Hurrians) lived in Matiene / Ματιηνή, a place that became a satrapyunder the Persians and continued to be so under Alexander. After Alexander theGreat´s death Matiene became independent under its satrap, Atropates /Ατροπάτηςwho declared himself a king. His kingdom became known as Media Atropatene orsimply Atropatene / Ατροπατηνή. Its name, paraphrased over the centuries, becamewhat we now call Azerbaijan. The Stephanos Byzantios´ geography for the KolchianMoschoi is therefore confirmed. The Kolchian Moschoi, despite the similarity in thephonetics of their name, are not the same people as the Mushki, though thepossibility always exists that their name "Moschoi" was assigned to them by others,confusing them with the "Mushki".
 The people whom the Assyrians called Mushki are the Phrygians, and the Greeks,who knew their neighbors and described them well in detail, never confused theMoschoi with the Mushki-Phrygians. The Assyrians mention two distinct Mushkipeople. The first ones to appear in the record are the eastern Mushki around 1165B.C. The western Mushki appear in the Assyrian records a few centuries later (end of the 8th to the beginning of the 7th cBC). Igor Diakonoff, the great Russian historianand linguistics scholar who specialized in the peoples of ancient near East identifiesthe Mushki solidly with the Phrygians:"It is also important that their designation coincides in Assyrian with that of thePhrygians."(I. M. Diakonoff, "The Pre-history of the Armenian People", Delmar, New York, 1984,Предыстория армянского народа, in the original Russian).Igor Diakonoff, of the Institut Vostokovedenija, in Leningrad - St. Petersburg, shouldknow a thing or two about the Phrygians: he wrote a book on the Phrygianlanguage: "Phrygian" by Diakonoff and Neroznak, published by Caravan Books, in1986. (The original Russian title was Očerk frigijskoj morfologii, published in 1977 inVilnius. The book came just before Claude Brixhe's research was published asI.Diakonoff mentions in his forward ["while reading the proofs, we learned thatLejeune's and Brixhe's Old Phrygian Corpus is to appear shortly, and that a projectfor a Phrygian etymological vocabulary by B. Kowal in Salzburg, Austria is well on itsway. It seems we are on the eve of a breakthrough in Phrygian studies - God-speed!" so his own findings were not in par with what we now understand of thePhrygian language, though his hopes and prayers for a breakthrough were indeedfully answered...!)Continuing with his (now universally accepted) solid identification of the Mushki withthe Phrygians Igor Diakonoff continues:"Note that there are are two different groups called "Mushki" in the Assyriansources: one group of Mushki captured Alzi and Purulumzi (near the confluence of the Arsanias and the Euphrates) around 1165 B.C. They are in evidence as anagricultural population in this region right up to the beginning of the 9th centuryB.C.", while "The other group of Mushki are mentioned in connection with thecampaigns of the Assyrian king Sargon II (722-705 B.C.) and the Urartian king RusaII (first half of the 7th century B.C.) as dwelling to the west of the Cilician Taurus. They are unquestionably to be identified with the Phrygians."I. Diakonoff identifies these Eastern Mushki with the Proto-Armenians. And he goeson to explain the meaning of the name "Mushki":"One thing is clear, however: in the Ancient Oriental sources the term Mushki wasused to designate Phrygia and the Phrygians, whose Indo-European linguistic

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