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Table Of Contents

1 From the "Standard Instrument" to the Handbook
2 Overview
2.1.1 Tracer Study?
2.1.2 Objectives of Tracer Studies
2.1.3 Three Basic Steps of a Survey
Figure 1: Phases of a Survey and Major Work Tasks
2.1.4 Specimen or Master Questionnaires
2.1.5 How to Develop a Questionnaire?
2.1.6 QTAFI - Questionnaires, Tables, and Figures
2.1.7 How can I install the QTAFI tool?
2.1.9 Software Requirements
Table 1 Software Requirements for a Survey
2.1.10 Hardware Requirements
2.1.11 Competencies Required in the Survey Team
2.1.12 Data Analysis
2.1.13 How to Read the Handbook
3 The Relevance of Graduate Surveys
3.1.1 The Evaluation Context
3.1.2 Prerequisites of Study
3.1.3 Resources
3.1.4 Processes
3.1.5 Outputs and Outcomes
Figure 2 Key Variables in the Evaluation of Higher Education
3.1.6 Measuring Outcomes of Higher Education
3.1.7 Direct Measurements
3.1.8 Indicators
3.1.9 Statements on the Part of the Participants
3.1.10 Statements on the Part of the Experts
3.1.11 The Content of Graduate Surveys
3.1.13 Objective Measures for Professional Success
3.1.16 Graduate Surveys and Curriculum Development
3.1.19 Complex Data Analysis
3.1.20 Employer Surveys
3.1.21 Objectives and Methodology of Tracer Studies
4 Objectives of Graduate Surveys
4.1.1 Practical Relevance of Information From Tracer Studies?
Table 2 Objectives of a Tracer Study
4.1.2 Labour Market Signals: the Employment Situation
4.1.3 Co-operation/Contacts with Alumni
4.1.4 Work Task and Competencies
4.1.5 Issues Regarding Curricula and Preparation for Work
4.1.6 Higher Education and Atypical Careers:
4.1.7 Implications for Higher Education Management
4.1.8 Subordination of the Higher Education System?
4.1.9 Feasibility - How to Reach a High Participation Rate?
5 Concept of the Study
5.1.1 Overview
5.1.2 Design Elements
Table 3 Design Element 1: Regional Level
Table 4 Design Element 2: Field of Study
Table 5 Design Element 3: Type of Institution
Table 7 Design Element 5: Type of Degree
Table 8 Design Element 6: Number of Institutions of Higher Education
Table 9 Design Element 7: Number of Cohorts
Table 10 Design Element 8: Time After Graduation
Table 11 Design Element 9: Length of Questionnaire
Table 12 Design Element 10: Data Collection Method
5.1.3 Other design elements
5.1.4 Sampling or total population of graduates?
5.1.5 Regular Graduate Survey
5.1.6 Cross-Sectional or Panel study?
5.1.7 Scope of Work and Schedule
Figure 3 Tasks and Schedule of a Tracer Study
5.1.8 Costs of a Survey
6 Development of Questionnaires
6.1.1 Adaptation of the Specimen Questionnaires
6.1.2 Layout and Volume of a Graduate Questionnaire
6.1.3 Volume of the Questionnaire
6.1.4 Layout of the Questionnaire
6.1.5 Data Entry Requirements
6.1.6 Open and Closed Questions
6.1.7 Variables, Codes, Values and Other Technical Terms
6.1.8 Answer Scales and the Level of Measurement
6.1.9 Categorical or Nominal Scale Question
Figure 6 Example for Nominal or Categorical Level of Measurement
6.1.10 Categorical Open-Ended Question
6.1.11 No answer?
6.1.12 Only one answer
6.1.13 Multiple Reply Possible
Figure 8 Example for Multiple Replies
6.1.14 Ordinal Responses
Figure 9 Example of an Ordinal Scale Question
6.1.15 How Many Scale Points in an Ordinal Scale?
6.1.16 Verbalizing the Scale Points
Figure 10 Verbalizing of the Scale Points
6.1.17 Metrical Level of Measurement
Figure 11 Example for metrical measurement
6.1.18 Rules for the Formulation of Questions
Figure 12 Rules for the Formulation of Questions
6.1.21 Styles Used for Formatting the Questionnaire
6.1.22 Covering Letter
6.1.23 Pre-test
6.1.24 How to Use QTAFI to Get a Questionnaire Format?
6.1.25 Insert all Styles for a Questionnaire
6.1.26 Insert Only Selected Styles
Figure 17 QTAFI - the Questionnaire Toolbar
7 The Content of the Graduate Questionnaire
7.1.1 Overview
7.1.2 Course of Studies
7.1.3 Retrospective Evaluation of Studies at the University
7.1.4 Job Search and Transition to Employment
7.1.5 Training Period After Graduation
7.1.6 The Present Employment Situation
7.1.7 Work, Professional Requirements and Use of Qualifications
7.1.8 Assessment of the Professional Situation
7.1.9 8. Further/Other Formal Higher Education
7.1.10 Further Professional Training
7.1.11 Bio-Data: Personal Background
7.1.12 Comments Concerning the Studies
8.1.2 Recruitment Procedures and Criteria
8.1.3 Initial Training for Graduates
8.1.4 Tasks of Engineers and Qualification Requirements
8.1.5 Prospects
8.1.6 Personal Background of the Interviewee
9 Data Collection - Implementation of the Survey
Figure 19 Form of a Interview Protocol
10 The QTAFI Codebook
10.1.1 Overview
Table 14: Explanation of the Format of the QTAFI Codebook
Table 15 Kind of Variables used in the Codebook and Related Analysis
10.1.2 Recommendations and rules for coding and data cleaning
10.1.3 Code lists
10.1.4 Missing values
10.1.5 Scales
10.1.6 Imputations
10.1.7 Multiple response
Table 16 General Rules for Checking the Questionnaire
10.1.8 ID Number and Return Date
11 Data analysis
11.1 Overview
11.1.1 Codebook
11.1.2 Table Format (Data entry in Columns)
11.1.3 Format of the data base (e.g. dBase or DATA ENTRY)
11.1.4 Coding of Open Responses
Figure 20 Example for the Data Entry of Text
11.1.5 Should all Responses be Coded?
11.1.6 Development of Response Categories
11.1.7 Example: Coding of semi-open questions
11.1.8 Numerical Data Entry
11.1.10 Quality control - check of entered data
11.1.11 Second phase of data control
11.2.1 Data Definition for the Statistical Analysis with SPSS
Figure 21 Example of Data Definition with SPSS
11.2.2 Short explanations of the most important SPSS-syntax
Table 17 SPSS Syntax: Labels and Missing Values
11.2.4 SPSS syntax for data modification: RECOCE and COMPUTE
Table 18 SPSS Syntax: RECODE and COMPUTE
Table 19 SPSS Syntax: COUNT
11.2.5 Simple data analysis: frequencies
Table 20 SPSS Syntax: FREQUENCIES and DESCRIPTIVES
Table 21 SPSS Syntax: LIST and SELECT IF
11.2.6 Data correction with SPSS syntax
Table 22 SPSS Syntax: IF
Figure 22 QTAFI - Generate SPSS Data Definition
Figure 23 Example of Data Definition with ASCII Data File
Figure 24 Examples of a SPSS Tables Programme Generated by QTAFI
Figure 25 QTAFI - Clean and Format Tables
Figure 26 QTAFI - Ready to Print Tables
11.3.2 Specific Individual Statistical Analysis
12 Report of Results
12.1.1 Structure of the Survey Report
13 Literature
13.1.2 Methods of Empirical Social Research
13.1.4 Selected Graduate and Employer Surveys
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Handbook v2

Handbook v2

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