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MJSC KUBANG PASU

Chapter 7
Name: AHMAD ZUL FIKHRIE BIN AZMIClass: F4(2010):407(GALANT)F5(2011):UNKNOWN yetMatric No. : 10706I.C No. : 940228-06-5063

7.1 Analysing Electric Fields and Charge Flow
Electric Charge and Electric Current
y
Electric charge is the
source of electrical force
.T
here are two types of electricalforce:
y

P
ositive (+) and negative (-).
y

T
he electric force between two charges is known as electrostatic force or
C
oulomb`sforce.
y
Van de Graff is often used as a source of electrostatic charges in the laboratory
.

y
Electric currents is made up of flowing electrons
.
Each electron carries a negativecharge of
y
1
.6
x 10
-19
Celcius
.

y
Electric current is the rate at which electic charges
flow through a conductor.
y

T
he SI unit for current is ampere (A),where
1A=1

C
s
-
1
.

Electric Field
y

Electric Field is a region in which an
electric charge experiences an electric force.

y

A field can be represented by a
number of lines,called electric lines of force
.Theselines indicate both the strength and direction of the field.
y

Electric field is
v
ector quantity
.
y

The direction of the electric field at a particular point is given by the direction of the forceacting on a positive test charge placed at that point.
y

W
hen a negative charge is placed in this electric field,it experiences a force pulling ittowards the positively-charged sphere.
The Effect of an Electric Field on a Charge
y

A small polystyrene ball coated with conducting material is suspended on an insulatingthread.It is then brought near to a positively-charged metal dome of a
V
an de Graffgenerator
.The near end of the polystyrene ball is negatively charged by induction.

7.2 Analysing the Relationship between Electric Current andPotential Difference
Potential Difference
y

An electric charge is placed at a point in an electric field,it experiences an electric forceacting on it.
W
ork is required to move the electric charge in the electric field against thisforce.This charge is said to have an electric potential at that point.
y

The energy carried by the charges will be converted into the forms of energy such
as lightand heat energy
in the bulb.So work is done when electrical energy carried by thecharges is dissipated as heat and light energy after crossing the bulb.
y

The potential difference between two points in the electric field is defined as the work doneor the energy that would be required to move one coulomb of charge from one point toanother.
y

The SI unit for
potential
difference is
V
olt (
V)
.

y

The potential difference between
two points in an electric field is one
v
olt
,if the workdone to move one coulomb of charge between the two points is one joule.
W
hich is:
1
V=
1 JC
-1
Ohm`s Law
y

The proportional relationship of the potential difference between the ends of an idealconductor and the current passing through it is known as
O
hm`s law.

y

Ohm`s law states that the current passing through an ideal conductor is directlyproportional to the potential difference between its ends,provided that the temperatureand other physical factors of the conductor are
k
ept constant
.
Resistance
y

The measure of a conductor`s opposition to the current flow is
k
nown as the resistance
of the conductor.
Different conductors ha
v
e different resistance to current flow
.
y

The resistance,R of a conductor is defined as
the ratio of potential difference,
V
acrossthe conductor to the current,I
flowing through it.
y

The SI unit of
resistance
is
ohm.

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