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Table Of Contents

Introductory Overview
1.1 Standard Model and beyond
1.1.1 Our Model of Elementary Particles and Interac-
1.1.2 Theoretical questions raised by this description
1.1.3 Some proposals for physics beyond the Standard
1.1.4 String theory as a theory beyond the Standard
2.1 Basic ideas
2.1.1 What are strings?
2.1.2 The worldsheet
2.1.3 String interactions
2.1.4 Critical dimension
2.1.5 Overview of closed bosonic string theory
2.1.6 String theory in curved spaces
2.1.7 Compactification
2.2 Superstringsand Heterotic string phenomenol-
2.2.1 Superstrings
2.2.2 Heterotic string phenomenology
other proposals beyond the standard model
3.1 The problem
3.2.3 Duality in string theory
3.3 D-branes
3.3.1 What are D-branes
3.3.2 Worldvolume theory
3.3.3 D-branes in string theory
3.3.4 D-branes as probes of spacetime
3.3.5 D-branes and gauge field theories
3.4 Our world as a brane-world model
4.1 Worldsheet action
4.1.1 The Nambu-Goto action
4.1.2 The Polyakov action
4.1.3 Symmetries of Polyakov action
4.2 Light-cone quantization
4.2.1 Light-cone gauge fixing
4.2.2 Gauge-fixed Polyakov action, Hamiltonian
4.2.3 Oscillator expansions
4.2.4 Light spectrum
4.2.5 Lessons
4.2.6 Final comments
Modular invariance
5.1 Generalities
5.2 Worldsheetcoordinatization in light-cone
5.3 The computation
5.3.1 Structure of the amplitude in operator formalism
5.3.2 The momentum piece
5.3.3 The oscillator piece
5.4 Modular invariance
5.4.1 Modular group of T2
5.4.2 Modular invariance of the partition function
5.4.3 UV behaviour of the string amplitude
6.1 Motivation
6.2 Toroidal compactification in field theory
6.3 Toroidal compactification in string the-
6.3.1 Quantization and spectrum
6.3.2 α effects I: Enhanced gauge symmetries
6.3.3 α effects II: T-duality
6.3.4 Additional comments
Type II Superstrings
7.1 Superstrings
7.1.1 Fermions on the worldsheet
7.1.2 Boundary conditions
7.1.3 Spectrum of states for NS and R fermions
7.1.4 Modular invariance
7.1.5 Type II superstring partition function
7.1.6 GSO projection
7.1.7 Light spectrum
7.2 Type 0 superstrings
7.3 Bosonization∗
Heterotic superstrings
8.1 Heterotic superstrings in bosonic formu-
8.1.1 Heteroticity
8.1.2 Hamiltonian quantization
8.1.3 Modular invariance and lattices
8.1.4 Spectrum
8.2 Heterotic strings in the fermionic formu-
8.3 Spacetime Non-susy heterotic string the-
8.4 A few words on anomalies
8.4.1 What is an anomaly?
Open strings
9.1 Generalities
9.2 Open bosonic string
9.2.1 Light-cone gauge
9.2.2 Boundary conditions
9.2.3 Hamiltonian
9.2.4 Oscillator expansions
9.2.5 Spectrum
9.2.6 Open-closed duality
9.4.5 RR tadpole cancellation condition
Type I superstring
10.1 Unoriented closed strings
10.1.1 Generalities
10.1.2 Unoriented closed bosonic string
10.1.3 Unoriented closed superstring theory IIB/Ω
10.2 Unoriented open strings
10.2.1 Action of Ω on open string sectors
10.2.2 Spectrum
10.3 Type I superstring
10.3.1 Computation of RR tadpoles
10.4 Final comments
11.1 Motivation
11.2 Type II superstrings
11.2.1 Circle compactification
11.2.2 T-duality for type II theories
11.2.3 Compactification of several dimensions
11.3 Heterotic superstrings
11.3.1 Circle compactification without Wilson lines
11.3.2 Compactification with Wilson lines
11.3.3 Field theory description of Wilson lines
11.3.4 String theory description
11.4 Toroidal compactification of type I su-
11.4.1 Circle compactification without Wilson lines
11.4.2 T-duality
11.5 Final comments
12.1 Motivation
12.1.1 Supersymmetry and holonomy
12.1.2 Calabi-Yau manifolds
12.2 Type II string theories on Calabi-Yau
12.2.1 Supersymmetry
12.2.2 KK reduction of p-forms
12.2.3 Spectrum
12.2.4 Mirror symmetry
12.3.1 General considerations
12.3.2 Spectrum
12.3.3 Phenomenological features of these models
Orbifold compactification
13.1 Introduction
13.1.1 Motivation
13.1.2 The geometry of orbifolds
13.1.3 Generalities of string theory on orbifolds
13.3.2 Computation of the spectrum
13.3.3 Final comments
14.1 Motivation
14.2 p-branes in string theory
14.2.1 p-brane solutions
14.2.2 Dirac charge quantization condition
14.2.3 BPS property
14.3 Duality for type II string theories
14.3.1 Type IIB SL(2,Z) duality
14.3.2 Toroidal compactification and U-duality
14.4 Final comments
.1.1 States in field theory
.1.2 BPS bounds
.1.3 Montonen-Olive duality
.2 The Kaluza-Klein monopole
A.1 Introduction
A.2 General properties of D-branes
A.3 World-volumespectra for type II D-branes
A.3.1 A single Dp-brane
A.4.2 Type I D5-brane
A.4.3 Type I D1-brane
A.5 Final comments
B.1 Introduction
B.2 The type IIB SL(2,Z) self-duality
B.2.1 Type IIB S-duality
B.2.2 Additional support
B.2.3 SL(2,Z) duality
B.3 Type IIA and M-theory on S1
B.3.1 Strong coupling proposal
B.3.2 Further comments
B.5 Type I / SO(32) heterotic duality
B.5.1 Strong coupling of Type I theory
B.5.2 Further comments
B.5.3 Additional support
B.6.1 Horava-Witten theory
B.6.2 Additional support
B.8 Final remarks
C.1 Motivation
C.2.1 K3
C.2.2 Type IIA on K3
C.2.4 Enhanced non-abelian gauge symmetry
C.2.5 Further comments
C.3 Type IIB on CY3 and conifold singulari-
C.3.2 The conifold singularity
C.3.3 Topology change
C.4 Final comments
D.1 Motivation
D.2.1 The configuration
D.2.2 The dictionary
D.2.3 Montonen-Olive duality
D.2.4 Generalizations
D.3 The Maldacena correspondence
D.3.1 Maldacena’s argument
D.3.2 Some preliminary tests of the proposal
D.3.3 AdS/CFT and holography
D.3.4 Implications
.1 Large N limit
A.3 Model building: D-brane-worlds
A.3.1 D-branes at singularities
A.3.2 Intersecting D-branes
A.4 Final comments
B.1 Motivation
B.2 Brane-antibrane pairs and tachyon con-
B.2.1 Anti-D-branes
B.2.2 Dp-Dp-brane pair
B.2.3 Tachyon condensation
B.3 D-branes from brane-antibrane pairs
B.3.1 Branes within branes
B.3.2 D-branes from brane-antibrane pairs
B.4 D-branes and K-theory
B.5 Type I non-BPS D-branes
B.5.1 Description
B.5.2 Heterotic/type I duality beyond supersymmetry
B.6 Final comments
Modular functions
Rudiments of group theory
B.1 Groups and representations
B.1.1 Group
B.1.2 Representation
B.1.3 Reducibility
B.1.4 Examples
B.1.5 Operations with representations
B.2 Lie groups and Lie algebras
B.2.1 Lie groups
B.2.2 Lie algebra A(G)
B.2.3 Exponential map
B.2.4 Commutation relations
B.2.5 Some useful representations
B.3 SU(2)
B.3.1 Roots
B.3.2 Weights
B.4 Roots and weights for general Lie alge-
B.4.1 Roots
B.4.2 Weights
B.4.3 SU(3) and some pictures
B.5.1 Simple roots
B.5.2 Cartan classification
B.6 Some examples of useful roots and weights
B.6.1 Comments on SU(k)
B.6.2 Comments on SO(2r)
B.6.3 Comments on SO(2r + 1)
B.6.4 Comments on USp(2n)
B.6.5 Comments on exceptional groups
C.1 Preliminaries: Spinors in 4d
C.2.1 The supersymmetry algebra
C.2.2 Structure of supermultiplets
C.3 Component fields, chiral multiplet
C.4 Superfields
C.4.1 Superfields and supersymmetry transformations
C.4.2 The chiral superfield
C.4.3 The vector superfield
C.4.4 Coupling of vector and chiral multiplets
C.4.5 Moduli space
C.5 Extended 4d supersymmetry
C.5.1 Extended superalgebras
C.5.2 Supermultiplet structure
C.6 Supersymmetry in several dimensions
C.6.1 Some generalities
D.1 Differential manifolds; Homology and co-
D.1.1 Differential manifolds
D.1.2 Tangent and cotangent space
D.1.3 Differential forms
D.1.4 Cohomology
D.1.5 Homology
D.1.6 de Rahm duality
D.1.7 Hodge structures
D.2 Fiber bundles
D.2.1 Fiber bundles
D.2.2 Principal bundles, associated bundles
D.3 Connections
D.3.1 Holonomy of a connection
D.3.2 Characteristic classes
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Introduction to String Theory Angel M. Uranga

Introduction to String Theory Angel M. Uranga

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Published by Xavi
Introduction to String Theory
Angel M. Uranga: an excelent exposition in string theory.
Introduction to String Theory
Angel M. Uranga: an excelent exposition in string theory.

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Xavi on Dec 05, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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