Carnot's premature death of cholera in1832 (45-46).
Ch. 6: It's All Downhill: The SecondLaw of Thermodynamics.
Rudolf Clausius (1822-1886) proposed that heatloss is of the essence of a heat engine, aperspective that reconciled the notions of the conservation and conversion (47-55).
Ch. 7: Briefer Is Better: TheInvention of Entropy.
Theoreticalparsimony as a persistent theme of science (56-57). Using the new"absolute" temperature scale devised byLord Kelvin, "the constancy of the ratio of heat to temperature turned out to be thekey to the quantification of thermodynamics" (59). Clausiusintroduced the term
in 1865 todenote "the ratio of heat to [absolute]temperature"; "when it was finallyrevealed as a measure of moleculardisorder . . . it would rise to a positionrivaling that of energy in ourunderstanding of the universe" (61-62).
Ch. 8: Rivers of Gold: A Parable.
Intended to convey the how entropy wasunderstood in the 19th century (63-66).
Ch. 9: A Game of Billiards: The Storyof Temperature.
On models (67-68). The atomic model produced still validresults in the billiard ball model of a gasintroduce in 1732 by Daniel Bernoulli(1700-1782) (68-71). Rediscovered inthe 19th century, it was seen that itscrux was "the realization that heat is justthe sum total of the energies of motion,or kinetic energies, of the individualmolecules" of a gas (72). Kelvin definedabsolute zero as the temperature atwhich gas volumes (and their kineticenergy) shrank to zero (73). Themolecular perspective clarifies theconcepts of temperature and heat (74-75).
Ch. 10: The Devil-On-Two-Sticks:Chance and the Loss of Certainty.
The passion of James Clerk Maxwell(1831-1879) passion for diabolo (whichhe called "the Devil-on-Two-Sticks")reflected how he approached physics,but in studying thermodynamics he hadto "change paradigms in mid-career" andturn to probability; this was "the crucialevent on the road toward a correctunderstanding of entropy" (81; 82; 76-84).
Ch. 11: Heads and Tails: The Laws of Probability.
The bell curve's"astonishing universality" (90; 85-91).
Ch. 12: The Mechanical Demon
AsPolish physicist Marian von Smoluchowskidemonstrated in 1912, it is theabsorption of heat and resultingBrownian motion that "killed" Maxwell'sdemon by showing there can be no suchdevice (92-98).
Ch. 13: Boltzmann's Universe: TheNature of Entropy.
By a conjecture"equating entropy with the logarithm of probability," Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann(1844-1906) was able to make entropycompatible with a molecularunderstanding of heat, and reached theconclusion that "entropy is disorder"(106; 108; 99-110). Boltzmann's suicide(110-11).
Ch. 14: Apocalypse Now: TheDissipation of Energy.
The concept of the "heat death" of the universe seizedthe popular imagination for a time, but"the problem has lost its ominousness"(120; 112-21).
E = MC
Einstein published theformula, a hallmark of the end of thereign of Newtonian physics, in September1905 in a three-page article;experimental confirmation that hepredicted of this stunning statement of the equivalence of matter and energycame 30 years later (122-24). That thespeed of light is a constant, which hasbeen experimentally verified, is a