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Hazard

Hazard

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Published by bakasudha
HRVC Analysis for Documentary HAZARD
HRVC Analysis for Documentary HAZARD

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Published by: bakasudha on Dec 06, 2010
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04/16/2012

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HRVC Analysis for Documentary
What is a Hazard? How is it Classified?
A dangerous condition or events that threaten or have thepotential for causing injury to life or damage to property or theenvironment. They can be categorized in various ways but, based onthe origin, hazards worldwide are basically grouped in two boardheadings:1.Natural Hazards (hazards with meteorological, geologicalor even biological origin)2.Unnatural Hazards (hazards with human-caused ortechnological orgin)It is also important to know that natural phenomena are extremeclimatological, hydrological, or geological, processes that do not poseany threat to persons or property if they occur in uninhabited areas . Amassive earthquake in an unpopulated area, for example, is a naturalphenomenon, not a hazard. It is when these natural phenomenainteract with the man made environment or fragile areas which causeswide spread damage. The effect of a hazard results in Disaster. It means that theability of the Society to recover from the losses and damages cannotbe completed with their own resources and requires out side help. Inour State natural disasters are caused by Cyclone, Floods and Drought.We shall know more about the features of the first two.CYCLONECharacteristicsCyclones are caused in the sea i.e. Bay of Bengal due to lowpressure and other meteorological causes where high speed windsrotate around a low pressure centre called the eye of the cyclone.Speed of winds could be from 60 kmph to above 200 kmph.Along with the winds very heavy rain takes place. The windscause the sea waves of heights between 3 to 7 meters in height andcan cross the coast line anywhere up to 10-15 kms inland . This isknown as Storm Surge or Uppena in Telugu. Severe damages arecaused due to high speed winds and the Uppena. Due to torrentialrains local flooding takes place and this adds to the losses suffered bythe society.
Warning
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Warning for the cyclone is given by the Indian MeteorologicalDepartment from Visakhapatnam. Disseminated through satellitebased disaster warning systems, radio, television, telephone, fax,Police communications, public announcements by revenue officials andthe print media.
Who is affected
Humans & Livestock. By death, injuries and diseases
What is affected
Huts and Houses - with light weight roofs – (thatched , tinsheets), walls with mud plaster, weak foundation.Buildings with structural weakness to high winds and floodwaters.Storage Godowns, sheds with weak constructionWorking tools/implements. (Trade tools – looms, boats, fishingnets etc)Electricity wires & poles,Water supply systems.Communication systems Tele lines/poles, telephones,Communication Towers,Roads,bridges, culvertsVehicles like cycles, M/cycles/sooters,auto rickshaws,tractors,4wheeled vehicles, Bullock carts etc.Lowlying areasCrops, Weak trees, Plantations like- coconut trees, fruit orchards
All 100% of the elements as identified above do not getdamaged. A rough guess is about 15 to 30 percent of thecategories would suffer losses. However the numbers or thequantities would also increase or decrease due to other factorslike the time available before the hazard strikes, Intensity of the hazard, Duration of the strike, Extent of area covered bythe hazard, Time of strike i.e. Daytime or night time, density of the people and the habitations.In all above cases the damage or loss takes place due toexisting weakness in the elements, the first being theexposure due to the location and the weakness in not havingthe strength to cope with the forces/pressures created by thewind and water as explained above.Analysis
See the weak spots/areas which were affected in the past, if notget to know from the other affected areas close by.
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What is vulnerability?
Vulnerability is defined as “The extent to which a community,structure, service or geographic areas is likely to be damaged ordisrupted by the impact of particular hazard, on account of theirnature, construction and proximity to hazardous terrain or a disasterprone area”. For example the villages next to the sea shore are moreprone to cyclone threat than villages which are 20 kilometers awayfrom the shore. Therefore the villages which are about 500 yards fromthe water line will be most affected. Most Elements identified earlierwill have the likelihood of facing the losses/damages.When you look at an object this term will mean the weakness of the object in withstanding the stress/pressure/force of a certain level.Compare a slate pencil with the normal pencil. You will discover thatslate pencil will break into two pieces when you apply sufficientpressure by your hands. Normal pencil however will not break with thesame pressure.
Social and economic conditions also determine thevulnerability of a society to an extent. It has been observedthat human losses in disasters in developing countries likeIndia tend to be high when compared to developed countrieswhere material losses predominate.What is Risk?
Risk is a measure of the expected losses (deaths, injuries,property, economic activity etc) due to a hazard of a particularmagnitude occurring in a given area over a specific time period. The figure on the right illustrates essentially the four factorsessentially hazards, location, exposure, and vulnerability whichcontribute to risk. They are:
Hazard (physical effects generated in the naturallyoccurring event).
Location of the hazards relative to the community at risk.
Exposure (the value and importance of the various types of structures and lifeline systems such as water-supply, communicationnetwork, transportation network etc in the community serving thepopulation, and
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