had been for rape or attempted rape. In 1922, the law known as the Dyer Anti-Lynching Law was passed through the House of Representatives with more than two-thirds in favour of the bill, but failed to make it through the Senate, due to the lack of political will in the 1920s to see an end to lynching, and also because of the influenceof the Southern Democrats. However, due to the research undertaken by the NAACPand the Tuskegee Institute being released in the press, and thus, to the general public,the outcry leads to a decrease in lynchings.In 1923, the NAACP gained an impressive legal victory against the courts of Arkansas in what is known as the Moore versus Dempsey case. In the Elaine,Arkansas riot of 1919, 5 whites were killed, allegedly by African Americans. As aresult of this, over 700 African Americans were arrested, 67 sent to prison and 12sentenced to death, after being tried by an all white jury. Walter White, a member of the NAACP, took interest in the case and after travelling to Arkansas posing as anewspaper reporter, and into Phillips County where the ‘massacre’ took place, he published what he had found. The NAACP then hired black and white lawyers, whoargued that due to the mob that had circled the courthouse on the day of the trial, the12 men had not received a fair trial. On the 19
of February 1923, the Supreme Courtdecided in the favour of the NAACP, the case was handed down to the lower courtsand all 12 men were freed.*
“Until your produce what the white man has produced, you will not be his equal”
– Marcus Garvey
Marcus Garvey, the founder of the UNIA believed that the only way toestablish African Americans as an independent group was through capitalism. OnJanuary 30 1920, the Negro Factories Corporation was created in Delaware, whose purpose was to help African Americans rely on their own efforts. By May the sameyear, the corporation had taken over the management of the steam laundry in Harlem,and was also opening millinery. Soon afterwards in June, the organisation hadcommenced the production of UNIA uniforms and insignia at the Universal Tailoringand Dress Making Department. Throughout America, UNIA branches wereencouraged to buy into their own buildings and open their own businesses, such as thePanama branch, which ran a bakery. The shares however, of these establishmentswere open to only to members of the UNIA. In 1921, the Negro Factories Corporationfell victim to organisational mismanagement, and ceased operations. Although thecompany never reached the height of Garvey’s vision, it gave hundreds of AfricanAmericans hope by providing people with employment in Harlem, as well asassistance through aid societies, small loans and death benefits.Another organisation set up to help stimulate the African American economywas the National Urban League, although established in 1910, helped AfricanAmericans migrate from rural to urban areas during the 1920s, its purpose being “to promote, encourage, assist and engage in any and all kinds of work for improving theindustrial, economic, social and spiritual conditions among Negroes”. In 1921, theDepartment of Research was created by the League for the purpose of surveyingBlack populations in northern cities, resulting in the discovery African Americansfaced regarding employment, sanitation and hygiene, and education. By addressingthese problems, the League quickly grew, and is still in action today.