and diversity except to satisfy vital needs. 4) Present human interference with the nonhumanworld is excessive, and the situation is rapidly worsening. 5) The flourishing of human life andcultures is compatible with a substantial decrease in the human population. 6) Significantchange of life conditions for the better require change in economic and technological policies. 7)Life quality should be given more primacy than a high standard of living. 8) Those whosubscribe to the foregoing points have an obligation to implement the necessary changes.This platform was specifically adopted by radical environmental groups such as Earth First!as their guiding philosophy, but deep ecology may have reached its greatest popular prominencewhen Senator Al Gore wrote in his 1989 book
Earth in the Balance
that “we must change thefundamental values at the heart of our civilization” in order to solve global environmental problems. This is deep ecology in a nutshell, and by the first decade of the twenty-first century,the majority of educated people are finally going along with it, even if they may not realizewhere the idea came from.In 2000, at the age of eighty-eight, Naess published
, a more personalaccount of his own history through ideas. It became the number one bestseller in Norway, andcatapulted its author to a new level of fame in his native land. In 2005 the
Selected Works of Arne Naess
was published in ten volumes by Kluwer, with the financial support of DougTompkins of the Foundation for Deep Ecology. It is perhaps the most comprehensive publication of the works of any living philosopher.Until his death Naess continued to speak out in the name of free nature and conservation, andhe always remained optimistic that humanity will be able to improve our relationship to theworld around us “by the twenty-second century.” Through his works and deeds he remains aninspiration to generations of younger environmental activists and philosophers.At the 2007 annual conference of the Eastern Division of the American PhilosophicalAssociation, President Anthony Appiah praised Naess’ early work investigating the philosophical views of ordinary people as the pioneering work in what is now the new disciplineof “experimental philosophy,” an attempt to make philosophy a more empirical kind of investigation more compatible with social and natural science. So at the very end of his life,Arne Naess’ work returned back to the mainstream of the discipline.REFERENCESArne Naess,
Ecology, Community, and Lifestyle
, translated by David Rothenberg. New York:Cambridge University Press, 1989.Arne Naess, with Per Ingvar Haukeland,
, translated by Roland Huntford.Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2002.Andrew Brennan and Nina Witoszek, editors.
Philosophical Dialogues: Arne Naess and the Progress of Ecophilosophy
. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999.
Bill Devall:My Relationship with Arne Naess
Arne Naess, Norwegian mountain climber, philosopher, and activist, died January 12, 2009.He was given a State funeral. The Crown Prince of Norway represented the King at the funeral.The funeral was broadcast on Norwegian national TV because he was considered a national heroin Norway.Arne Naess was my teacher, in the Buddhist meaning of that term. He guided me.I discovered Arne Naess while cruising through academic journals in the library of HumboldtState University, Arcata, California in 1975. I participated in Earth Day, 1970, but as I became