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D-03-09[1]

D-03-09[1]

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 The views expressed are purely those of the authors and may not, in any circumstances, be regarded as stating anofficial position of the European Commission
EUFIRELABEVR1-CT-2002-40028D-03-09http://eufirelab.org 
EUFIRELAB:
 Euro-Mediterranean Wildland Fire Laboratory,a “wall-less” Laboratoryfor Wildland Fire Sciences and Technologiesin the Euro-Mediterranean RegionDeliverable D-03-09Behaviour Modelling of Wildland Fires:Final version of the State of the Art
Coordinated by Albert SIMEONIJorge ANDRE, Didier CALOGINE, Pedro CUIÑAS, Jean Luc DUPUY,Paulo FERNANDES, Michel LARINI, Ana Isabel MIRANDA,Dominique MORVAN, Josep PIÑOL, Olivier SERO-GUILLAUMEDecember 2006
 
EUFIRELABD-03-09.doc
CONTENT LIST
1
 
A review on empirical modelling of wildland fire behaviour................................................................................1
 
1.1
 
Introduction....................................................................................................................................................1
 
1.2
 
Empirical fire behaviour modelling in Australia and Canada.........................................................................2
 
1.2.1
 
Australian models.....................................................................................................................................2
 
1.2.2
 
Canadian models.....................................................................................................................................3
 
1.2.3
 
Input data and functional relationships.....................................................................................................3
 
1.3
 
Empirical fire behaviour modelling in Europe................................................................................................4
 
1.3.1
 
The different models.................................................................................................................................4
 
1.3.2
 
Fire regime models...................................................................................................................................5
 
1.3.3
 
Considerations about research priorities..................................................................................................5
 
1.4
 
References....................................................................................................................................................6
 
2
 
A review on physical modelling of wildland fire behaviour...............................................................................10
 
2.1
 
Introduction..................................................................................................................................................10
 
2.2
 
Semi-empirical models................................................................................................................................10
 
2.3
 
Physical models...........................................................................................................................................10
 
2.4
 
Detailed physical and multiphase approach................................................................................................12
 
2.4.1
 
The fuel as a multiphase medium..........................................................................................................12
 
2.4.2
 
The fuel as a fractal medium..................................................................................................................12
 
2.4.3
 
Changing spatial scale...........................................................................................................................13
 
2.4.4
 
A system of multiphase, reactive and radiative equations.....................................................................13
 
2.4.5
 
Using asymptotic analysis......................................................................................................................13
 
2.4.6
 
Large Eddy Simulation...........................................................................................................................14
 
2.5
 
Approximate models....................................................................................................................................14
 
2.6
 
Future prospects.........................................................................................................................................15
 
2.6.1
 
To characterise the fuel..........................................................................................................................15
 
2.6.2
 
To validate the fire behaviour.................................................................................................................15
 
2.6.3
 
To improve the metrology......................................................................................................................15
 
2.6.4
 
To change the scale of prediction..........................................................................................................15
 
2.6.5
 
To use larger numerical meshes............................................................................................................15
 
2.6.6
 
To develop approximate models............................................................................................................15
 
2.7
 
Conclusion...................................................................................................................................................16
 
2.8
 
References..................................................................................................................................................16
 
3
 
A review on wildland fire smoke dispersion modelling.....................................................................................20
 
3.1
 
Introduction..................................................................................................................................................20
 
3.2
 
Emission and dispersion of air pollutants....................................................................................................20
 
3.2.1
 
The major air pollutants..........................................................................................................................20
 
3.2.2
 
Emission of particulate matter................................................................................................................20
 
3.2.3
 
Modification of the mixture.....................................................................................................................21
 
3.2.4
 
Transportation of the mixture.................................................................................................................21
 
3.3
 
Numerical modelling of smoke production and dispersion..........................................................................22
 
3.3.1
 
To estimate the plume rise.....................................................................................................................22
 
3.3.2
 
To calculate the transport speed and direction......................................................................................22
 
3.3.3
 
To simulate smoke dispersion................................................................................................................23
 
3.4
 
Final comments...........................................................................................................................................26
 
3.5
 
References..................................................................................................................................................27
 
3.6
 
Figures.........................................................................................................................................................31
 
4
 
Fire behaviour prediction..................................................................................................................................33
 
4.1
 
Introduction..................................................................................................................................................33
 
4.2
 
Fire development phase..............................................................................................................................33
 
4.3
 
Fire regime..................................................................................................................................................34
 
4.4
 
Aspects of the fire behaviour predicted.......................................................................................................35
 
4.4.1
 
Main fire front.........................................................................................................................................35
 
4.4.2
 
Behaviour of a small section of the
fire line 
(local prediction)................................................................35
 
4.4.3
 
Behaviour of the whole f
ire line 
(global prediction)................................................................................36
 
4.4.4
 
Large crown fires and bushfires.............................................................................................................36
 
4.4.5
 
Spotting..................................................................................................................................................37
 
4.4.6
 
Fire whirls...............................................................................................................................................37
 
4.5
 
Applied research products...........................................................................................................................37
 
4.6
 
Future prospects.........................................................................................................................................38
 
4.7
 
References..................................................................................................................................................38
 
 
EUFIRELABD-03-09.doc
SUMMARY
In this document, the authors summarise the two main approaches for modelling the behaviour of wildland fireclassically followed by the scientific community: empirical and physical modelling.Concerning the empirical modelling, the authors analyse the models developed in Australia since the 1960’s inthe different type of ecosystems concerned by wildland fire: mainly grassland and eucalypt stands, and, morerecently in moorlands and shrublands.Then analyse also the models developed in Canada related to the Canadian Forest Fire Rating System inconstant evolution since the 1920’s.The authors pay attention to the required input data of these empirical models and the empirical functionalrelationships established between parameters like damping effect of the moisture content, wind and slope effectson wildland fire dynamic, or flame length and height and wildland fire intensity.Afterwards, they analyse the empirical approach for modelling the wildland fire behaviour in Europe, in fact inthe Euro-Mediterranean countries.An original approach, called “fire regime modelling” is also presented. It aims to represent the impact of fires ona landscape scale over several decades, in terms of finally burnt area.They add considerations about research priorities in the domain of the empirical approach in relation with thecurrent state of the art.Concerning the physical modelling, the authors compare the different physical models, which take into accountone or several processes of energy transfer from the burning zone to the unburned fuel.The authors describe largely the detailed physical and multiphase approach, indicating the nature of the solvedequations.Before developing some future prospects, they analyse the interest of approximate models.The third part of the document is dedicated to a complete review of the smoke dispersion models usedworldwide. The authors classify them in three groups: research models, planning models and screening models.They underline the interest of fire assessment systems and expert systems in this domain.In the whole document, the authors present the contribution of the European teams involved in EUFIRELAB.They are involved in all kinds of modelling and references are included in all sections.At the end of each part, the authors provide a very large list of bibliographical references concerning the itemsdeveloped in the three chapters of the document.

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