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Biodegradation of Texile Azo Dyes - Fungi

Biodegradation of Texile Azo Dyes - Fungi



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Published by sethu anand
article about biodegradation of texile azo dyes by fungi
article about biodegradation of texile azo dyes by fungi

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Published by: sethu anand on Aug 04, 2008
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Presented by www.fibre2fashion.com
Biodegradation ofreactive textile dyes bybasidiomycetous fungifrom Brazilianecosystems
By:Kátia M.G. MachadoLuciana C. A. CompartRubio O. MoraisLuiz H. RosaMércia H. Santos
Presented by www.fibre2fashion.com
Biodegradation of reactive textile dyes bybasidiomycetous fungi from Brazilian ecosystems
By:Kátia M.G. Machado, Luciana C. A. Compart, Rubio O. Morais, Luiz H. Rosa , Mércia H. Santos
Universidade Católica de Santos, Santos, SP, Brasil. Fundação Centro Tecnológico de Minas Gerais, BeloHorizonte, MG, Brasil. Laboratório de Química de Produtos Naturais, Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou,Fundação Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil
The potential of
Trametes villosa 
Pycnoporus sanguineus 
to decolorize reactive textile dyes used forcotton manufacturing in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, was evaluated. Growth and decolorization haloswere determined on malt extract agar containing 0.002g L-1 of the dye.
T. villosa 
decolorized all 28 of thetested dyes while
P. sanguineus 
decolorized only 9. The effect of culture conditions (shaking and dye andnitrogen concentration) on the degradation of Drimaren Brilliant Blue dye was evaluated during growth of thefungi in liquid synthetic medium. Shaking favored degradation and decolorization was not repressed bynitrogen. In pure culture,
T. villosa 
P. sanguineus 
decolorized synthetic effluent consisting of a mixtureof 10 dyes. Higher decolorization of the synthetic effluent was observed when a mixed culture of the twofungi was used. This study demonstrated differences between tropical basidiomycete species in terms oftheir ability to degrade reactive dyes, and reinforces the potential of this group of fungi for the decolorizationof textile effluents.
Key words:
textile industry, synthetic effluent, reactive dyes
In the State of Minas Gerais, the second largest textile pole in Brazil, most textile industries operate withpure cotton fibers or cotton fibers mixed with polyester. Few of these factories possess their own wastewatertreatment plant, and most of the time the effluents are discharged into the water bodies without anytreatment. In general, the difficulties encountered in the wastewater treatment resulting from dyeingoperations lies in the wide variability of the dyes used and in the excessive color of the effluents. Many dyesand other substances present in textile effluents are not readily degraded during their permanency intraditional aerobic treatment systems (17, 26).Although many physicochemical techniques of decolorization have been developed over the last 20 years,few have been implemented by the textile industries due to their high cost, low efficiency and inapplicabilityto a wide variety of dyes. A definitive solution of the color problem of textile effluents would provide a markedcompetitive advantage for this industrial sector. Since no single process is able to decolorize all textileeffluents, a solution for each situation should be considered, possibly involving a combination of differentmethods (1). The success of a biological process for color removal from a given effluent depends in part onthe utilization of microorganisms that effectively decolorize synthetic dyes of different chemical structures.Many bacteria, actinomycetes, yeast and metaphoric fungi are able to decolorize dyes, with color removal bythese microorganisms being mainly attributed to adsorption of the dyes (1, 27).Basidiomycetous fungi are able not only to decolorize but also to degrade and mineralize a broad spectrumof different dye structures (azo, anthraquinone, heterocyclic, triphenylmethane and polymeric dyes), inaddition to numerous other toxic organic and recalcitrant compounds.The enzymatic system involved in the degradation of pollutants by these fungi is nonspecific and even actson mixtures of pollutants (12, 23, and 26). The objectives of the present study were 1) to evaluate thepotential of native Brazilian basidiomycetes to degrade a broad spectrum of reactive synthetic dyes, 2) toanalyze the decolorization of reactive dyes under different culture conditions (shaking and dye and nitrogen
Presented by www.fibre2fashion.com
concentration), and 3) to determine the decolorization of a synthetic effluent by pure and mixed cultures ofbasidiomycetes.
Trametes villosa 
(Fr.) Kreisel CCB176, with known ligninolytic activity (16), was obtained from theBasidiomycetes Culture Collection (CCB) of the Institute of Botany, Sao Paulo.
Pycnoporus Sanguineus 
(L.: Fr.) Murr. UFMGCB03 was isolated from the biological reserve of the Museum of NationalHistory, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (20). The cultures weremaintained on 2% (w/v) malt extract agar (MEA) at 4ºC.
The reactive dyes (Table 1) were provided by Cia. Manufatora de Tecidos de Algodão (Cataguases,MG) and are routinely used in the dyeing process of cotton fibers.
Dye decolorization on solid medium
A disc (2 mm) of fungal mycelium in MEA was inoculated into the center of Petri dishes (90 mm) containingMEA and 0.002 g L-1 of the dye, in triplicate. The plates were incubated at 28ºC in the dark until they werecompletely colonized with the fungus or for a maximum period of 21 days. The diameters (cm) of thedecolorization and growth halos were determined in two perpendicular directions of the plate (13). Platescontaining the dye but not inoculated served as control.
Decolorization of Drimaren Brilliant Blue dye in liquid medium
Three discs (2 mm) of
T. villosa 
on MEA were transferred to 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 mL 2%malt extract broth (MEC) supplemented with 0.002 to 0.01 g L-1 of Drimaren Brilliant Blue, in duplicate. Theflasks were incubated in the dark at 28ºC for 21 days.Non-inoculated culture medium was used as control. The effect of shaking (130 rpm) on decolorization wasevaluated at a dye concentration of 0.002 g L-1.
Influence of nitrogen on the decolorization of Drimaren Brilliant Blue
Three discs (Æ 2 mm) containing the fungus grown on 2% MEA at 28ºC were transferred to 250 mL flaskscontaining 50 mL modified basal medium (10) supplemented with 0.002 g L-1 Drimaren Brilliant Blue. Thecomposition of the medium (per liter) was: 10 g glucose, 0.001 g thiamine-HCl, 1 g KH2PO4, 0.5 g MgSO4,0.01 g CaCl2, 0.01 g FeSO4 7H2O, 0.001 g MnSO4 4H2O, 10 mL sodium acetate buffer, pH 4.5, andammonium titrate at the concentration needed to obtain 1.2, 12 and 22.4 mm nitrogen. The flasks wereincubated at 28ºC and 130 rpm. The experiments were carried out in duplicate. Non-inoculated culturemedium was used as control.
Decolorization of synthetic effluent
The synthetic effluent consisted of a mixture of 10 dyes (0.001g L-1): Remazol Brilliant Orange 1, LevafixGold Yellow 10, Procion Yellow 14, Drimaren Brilliant Blue 17, Remazol Brilliant Blue 18, Cibacron Black 55,Procion Black 59, Drimaren Turquoise Blue 62, Drimaren Brilliant Red 67, and Remazol Red 75. Two discsof fungal mycelium in MEA were inoculated into flasks containing 100 mL MEC supplemented with thesynthetic effluent at a final concentration of 0.01 g L-1. For mixed cultures, one growth disc containingmycelium of each fungus was used. The flasks were incubated at 28oC and 130 rpm. The fungi were alsogrown in culture medium without the synthetic effluent.
Degradation of Drimaren Brilliant Blue
The content of the flasks was removed at determined time intervals and filtered (0.45µ) and the filtratediluted 1/10 was used to determine dye degradation (4). Decolorization was analyzed by determining theabsorbance at 590 nm and is expressed as relative percentage taking the non-inoculated control as 100%.The absorbance spectrum of the dye was determined in the visible range (400 to 700 nm) with a Hitachi U-3000 spectrophotometer

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