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Table Of Contents

1.1WHAT IS ‘LIVING’?
1.2DIVERSITY IN THE LIVING WORLD
1.3.1Species
1.3.2Genus
1.3.3Family
1.3.4Order
1.3.5Class
1.3.6Phylum
1.3.7Kingdom
1.4.1Herbarium
1.4.2Botanical Gardens
1.4.3Museum
1.4.4Zoological Parks
1.4.5Key
2.1.1 Archaebacteria
2.1.2Eubacteria
2.2.1Chrysophytes
2.2.2 Dianoflagellates
2.2.3 Euglenoids
2.2.4 Slime Moulds
2.2.5 Protozoans
2.3.1 Phycomycetes
2.3.2 Ascomycetes
2.3.3Basidiomycetes
2.3.4Deuteromycetes
2.4KINGDOM PLANTAE
2.5KINGDOM ANIMALIA
2.6VIRUSES, VIROIDS AND LICHENS
3.1.3Rhodophyceae
3.2.1 Liverworts
3.2.2 Mosses
3.3 PTERIDOPHYTES
3.4 GYMNOSPERMS
3.5ANGIOSPERMS
3.6 PLANT LIFE CYCLES AND ALTERNATION OF GENERATIONS
4.1.1Levels of Organisation
4.1.2Symmetry
4.1.3Diploblastic and Triploblastic
4.1.4 Coelom
4.1.5 Segmentation
4.1.6 Notochord
4.2.1 Phylum – Porifera
4.2.2Phylum – Coelenterata (Cnidaria)
4.2.3Phylum – Ctenophora
4.2.4Phylum – Platyhelminthes
4.2.5Phylum – Aschelminthes
4.2.6Phylum – Annelida
4.2.7Phylum – Arthropoda
4.2.8Phylum – Mollusca
4.2.9Phylum – Echinodermata
4.2.10Phylum – Hemichordata
4.2.11.1Class – Cyclostomata
4.2.11.2Class – Chondrichthyes
4.2.11.3Class – Osteichthyes
4.2.11.4Class – Amphibia
4.2.11.5Class – Reptilia
4.2.11.6Class – Aves
4.2.11.7Class – Mammalia
5.1.1Regions of the Root
5.1.2Modifications of Root
5.2THE STEM
5.3.1Venation
5.3.2Types of Leaves
5.3.3Phyllotaxy
5.3.4Modifications of Leaves
5.4THE INFLORESCENCE
5.5.1.1Calyx
5.5.1.2Corolla
5.5.1.3Androecium
5.5.1.4Gynoecium
5.6THE FRUIT
5.7.1Structure of a Dicotyledonous Seed
5.7.2Structure of Monocotyledonous Seed
5.8SEMI-TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION OF A TYPICAL FLOWERING PLANT
5.9.1Fabaceae
5.9.2Solanaceae
5.9.3Lilaceae
6.1.1Meristematic Tissues
6.1.2.1Simple Tissues
6.3.3Dicotyledonous Stem
6.3.4Monocotyledonous Stem
6.3.5Dorsiventral (Dicotyledonous) Leaf
6.3.6Isobilateral (Monocotyledonous) Leaf
6.4.1.1Formation of cambial ring
6.4.1.2Activity of the cambial ring
6.4.1.3Spring wood and autumn wood
6.4.1.4Heartwood and sapwood
6.4.2Cork Cambium
6.4.3Secondary Growth in Roots
7.1.1Epithelial Tissue
7.1.2Connective Tissue
7.1.3Muscle Tissue
7.1.4Neural Tissue
7.2ORGAN AND ORGAN SYSTEM
7.3.1Morphology
7.3.2Anatomy
7.4.1Morphology
7.4.2Anatomy
7.5.1Morphology
7.5.2Anatomy
8.1WHAT IS A CELL?
8.2CELL THEORY
8.3AN OVERVIEW OF CELL
8.4.1Cell Envelope and its Modifications
8.4.2Ribosomes and Inclusion Bodies
8.5.1 Cell Membrane
8.5.2Cell Wall
8.5.3.1 The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
8.5.3.2 Golgi apparatus
8.5.3.3 Lysosomes
8.5.3.4 Vacuoles
8.5.4Mitochondria
8.5.5Plastids
8.5.6Ribosomes
8.5.7Cytoskeleton
8.5.8Cilia and Flagella
8.5.9Centrosome and Centrioles
8.5.10Nucleus
8.5.11Microbodies
9.3BIOMACROMOLECULES
9.4PROTEINS
9.5POLYSACCHARIDES
9.6NUCLEIC ACIDS
9.7STRUCTURE OF PROTEINS
9.8NATURE OF BOND LINKING MONOMERS IN A POLYMER
9.9DYNAMIC STATE OF BODY CONSTITUENTS – CONCEPT OF METABOLISM
9.10METABOLIC BASIS FOR LIVING
9.11THE LIVING STATE
9.12.1Chemical Reactions
9.12.2How do Enzymes bring about such High Rates of Chemical Conversions?
9.12.3Nature of Enzyme Action
9.12.4Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity
9.12.5Classification and Nomenclature of Enzymes
9.12.6Co-factors
10.1CELL CYCLE
10.2.1Prophase
10.2.2Metaphase
10.2.3Anaphase
10.2.4Telophase
10.2.5Cytokinesis
10.3Significance of Mitosis
10.4.1Meiosis I
10.4.2Meiosis II
10.5SIGNIFICANCE OF MEIOSIS
11.1.1Diffusion
11.1.2Facilitated Diffusion
11.1.3Active Transport
11.1.4Comparison of Different Transport Processes
11.2.1Water Potential
11.2.2Osmosis
11.2.3Plasmolysis
11.2.4Imbibition
11.3.1How do Plants Absorb Water?
11.3.2.1 Root Pressure
11.3.2.2 Transpiration pull
11.4TRANSPIRATION
11.5.1Uptake of Mineral Ions
11.5.2Translocation of Mineral Ions
11.6 PHLOEM TRANSPORT: FLOW FROM SOURCE TO SINK
12.1METHODS TO STUDY THE MINERAL REQUIREMENTS OF PLANTS
12.2.1Criteria for Essentiality
12.2.2Role of Macro- and Micro-nutrients
12.2.3Deficiency Symptoms of Essential Elements
12.2.4Toxicity of Micronutrients
12.3MECHANISM OF ABSORPTION OF ELEMENTS
12.4TRANSLOCATION OF SOLUTES
12.5SOIL AS RESERVOIR OF ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS
12.6.1Nitrogen Cycle
12.6.2Biological Nitrogen Fixation
13.1WHAT DO WE KNOW?
13.2EARLY EXPERIMENTS
13.3WHERE DOES PHOTOSYNTHESIS TAKE PLACE?
13.4HOW MANY PIGMENTS ARE INVOLVED
13.7.2The Calvin Cycle
13.8THE C
13.9 PHOTORESPIRATION
13.10.1Light
13.10.2 Carbon dioxide Concentration
13.10.3 Temperature
13.10.4 Water
14.1DO PLANTS BREATHE?
14.2GLYCOLYSIS
14.3FERMENTATION
14.4.1Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle
14.4.2Electron Transport System (ETS) and Oxidative Phosphorylation
14.5THE RESPIRATORY BALANCE SHEET
14.6AMPHIBOLIC PATHWAY
14.7RESPIRATORY QUOTIENT
15.1.1 Plant Growth Generally is Indeterminate
15.1.2Growth is Measurable
15.1.3Phases of Growth
15.1.4 Growth Rates
15.1.5Conditions for Growth
15.2DIFFERENTIATION, DEDIFFERENTIATION AND REDIFFERENTIATION
15.3 DEVELOPMENT
15.4.1Characteristics
15.4.2 The Discovery of Plant Growth Regulators
15.4.3.1 Auxins
15.4.3.2 Gibberellins
15.4.3.3 Cytokinins
15.4.3.4 Ethylene
15.4.3.5 Abscisic acid
15.5PHOTOPERIODISM
15.6VERNALISATION
16.1.1Alimentary Canal
16.1.2Digestive Glands
16.2DIGESTION OF FOOD
16.3ABSORPTION OF DIGESTED PRODUCTS
16.4DISORDERS OF DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
17.1RESPIRATORY ORGANS
17.2MECHANISM OF BREATHING
17.3EXCHANGE OF GASES
17.4.1Transport of Oxygen
17.4.2 Transport of Carbon dioxide
17.5REGULATION OF RESPIRATION
17.6DISORDERS OF RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
18.1.1Plasma
18.1.2Formed Elements
18.1.3.1 ABO grouping
18.1.3.2Rh grouping
18.1.4Coagulation of Blood
18.2LYMPH (TISSUE FLUID)
18.3.1Human Circulatory System
18.3.2Cardiac Cycle
18.3.3Electrocardiograph (ECG)
18.4DOUBLE CIRCULATION
18.5REGULATION OF CARDIAC ACTIVITY
18.6DISORDERS OF CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
19.1 HUMAN EXCRETORY SYSTEM
19.2URINE FORMATION
19.3FUNCTION OF THE TUBULES
19.4MECHANISM OF CONCENTRATION OF THE FILTRATE
19.5REGULATION OF KIDNEY FUNCTION
19.6MICTURITION
19.7ROLE OF OTHER ORGANS IN EXCRETION
19.8DISORDERS OF THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM
20.1TYPES OF MOVEMENT
20.2.1Structure of Contractile Proteins
20.2.2Mechanism of Muscle Contraction
20.3SKELETAL SYSTEM
20.4JOINTS
20.5DISORDERS OF MUSCULAR AND SKELETAL SYSTEM
21.1NEURAL SYSTEM
21.2HUMAN NEURAL SYSTEM
21.3.1Generation and Conduction of Nerve Impulse
21.3.2Transmission of Impulses
21.4.1Forebrain
21.4.2Midbrain
21.4.3Hindbrain
21.5REFLEX ACTION AND REFLEX ARC
21.6.1.1Parts of an eye
21.6.1.2Mechanism of Vision
21.6.2The Ear
22.1ENDOCRINE GLANDS AND HORMONES
22.2.1The Hypothalamus
22.2.2The Pituitary Gland
22.2.3The Pineal Gland
22.2.4Thyroid Gland
22.2.5Parathyroid Gland
22.2.6Thymus
22.2.7Adrenal Gland
22.2.8Pancreas
22.2.9Testis
22.2.10Ovary
22.3HORMONES OF HEART, KIDNEY AND GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT
22.4MECHANISM OF HORMONE ACTION
22.5a). Hormones which interact with intracellular receptors (e.g., steroid
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Biology

Biology

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Published by: nandatrilok on Dec 07, 2010
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