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A Comparative Study on Seismic Provisions Made in Indian and International Building Codes for RC Buildings

A Comparative Study on Seismic Provisions Made in Indian and International Building Codes for RC Buildings

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Published by Ramesh Karadi
This study focuses on the comparison of the Indian Code (IS) and International Building Codes (IBC) in relation to the seismic design and analysis of Ordinary RC moment-resisting frame (OMRF), Intermediate RC moment-resisting frame (IMRF) and Special RC moment-resting frame (SMRF). The analytical results of the model buildings are then compared and analyzed taking note of any significant differences. This study explores variations in the results obtained using the two codes, particularly design base shear, lateral loads, drifts and area of steel for structural members for all RC buildings in both the codes.
The discussion in this study will be confined to monolithically cast reinforced concrete buildings. Specific provisions for design of seismic resistant reinforced members are presented in detail. Provisions of Indian and International Buildings Codes are identified.
Target deflection of the building is achieved at a lower lateral force in SMRF IBC i.e, the concept of lesser force and more deflection is followed. However in OMRF, IMRF and SMRF of Indian Code lateral force applied in higher as a result the deflection on the top of the building exceeds the target deflection. To keep the deflection within the permissible limits we then increase the column and beam sizes to make the building stiffer and maintain deflection within the permissible limits.
This study focuses on the comparison of the Indian Code (IS) and International Building Codes (IBC) in relation to the seismic design and analysis of Ordinary RC moment-resisting frame (OMRF), Intermediate RC moment-resisting frame (IMRF) and Special RC moment-resting frame (SMRF). The analytical results of the model buildings are then compared and analyzed taking note of any significant differences. This study explores variations in the results obtained using the two codes, particularly design base shear, lateral loads, drifts and area of steel for structural members for all RC buildings in both the codes.
The discussion in this study will be confined to monolithically cast reinforced concrete buildings. Specific provisions for design of seismic resistant reinforced members are presented in detail. Provisions of Indian and International Buildings Codes are identified.
Target deflection of the building is achieved at a lower lateral force in SMRF IBC i.e, the concept of lesser force and more deflection is followed. However in OMRF, IMRF and SMRF of Indian Code lateral force applied in higher as a result the deflection on the top of the building exceeds the target deflection. To keep the deflection within the permissible limits we then increase the column and beam sizes to make the building stiffer and maintain deflection within the permissible limits.

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A Comparative Study on Seismic Provisions Made in Indian andInternational Building Codes for RC Buildings
Dr. S.V. Itti*, Prof. Abhishek Pathade** and Ramesh B. Karadi***
*Professor & PG-Coordinator, **Professor and *** M-Tech. Student.Dept. of Civil Engg., KLESCET, Belgaum – 590008 (Karnataka)
.
Abstract:
This study focuses on the comparison of the Indian Code (IS) and InternationalBuilding Codes (IBC) in relation to the seismic design and analysis of Ordinary RC moment-resisting frame (OMRF), Intermediate RC moment-resisting frame (IMRF) and Special RCmoment-resting frame (SMRF). The analytical results of the model buildings are then comparedand analyzed taking note of any significant differences. This study explores variations in theresults obtained using the two codes, particularly design base shear, lateral loads, drifts and areaof steel for structural members for all RC buildings in both the codes.The discussion in this study will be confined to monolithically cast reinforced concrete buildings. Specific provisions for design of seismic resistant reinforced members are presented indetail. Provisions of Indian and International Buildings Codes are identified.Target deflection of the building is achieved at a lower lateral force in SMRF IBC i.e, theconcept of lesser force and more deflection is followed. However in OMRF, IMRF and SMRF of Indian Code lateral force applied in higher as a result the deflection on the top of the buildingexceeds the target deflection. To keep the deflection within the permissible limits we thenincrease the column and beam sizes to make the building stiffer and maintain deflection withinthe permissible limits.This work aims at the comparison of various provisions for earthquake analysis as givenin building codes of Indian Code and International Building Codes.Key words:
 Equivalent Static Method, Indian (IS-1893-2002) Code, International Building (IBC-2006)Code, OMRF, IMRF and SMRF Buildings.
Introduction:
Earthquakes, Tsunamis,Seiches, Landslides, Floods and Fires arenatural calamities causing severe damageand sufferings to persons by collapsing thestructures, cutting off transport systems,killing or trapping persons, animals etc.Such natural disasters are challenges to the progress of development. However, civilengineers as designers have a major role to play in minimizing the damages by proper designing the structures or taking other useful decisions. This includesunderstanding the earthquakes, behavior of the materials of construction and structuresand the extent to which structural engineersmake use of the knowledge in taking proper decisions in designing the structures made of reinforced concrete
[14]
.The characteristics (intensity,duration, etc) of seismic ground vibrationsexpected at any location depend upon themagnitude of earthquake, its depth of focus,distance from the epicentre, characteristicsof the path through which the seismic wavestravel, and the soil strata on which thestructure stands. The random earthquakeground motions, which cause the structure tovibrate, can be resolved in any threemutually perpendicular directions. The predominant direction of ground vibration isusually horizontal
[3]
.A large number of urban multi storey buildings in India today have open firststorey as a necessary feature. This is primarily being adopted to accommodate parking or reception lobbies in the firststoreys. Such buildings are often called openground storey buildings or buildings onstilts. The upper storeys have brick in filledwall panels. The Indian seismic code
 
classifies a soft storey as one whose lateralstiffness is less than 70%
 
of the storey aboveor below
[1]
.A several buildings are able towithstand moderate earthquakes eventhough not designed for earthquake forces.Quite often this is because of latent strengthof masonry infill which is normally ignoredin design. However in case of buildings onstilts, in stilt portion this latent strength isnot available,
 
hence remain vulnerable under earthquake shaking
[1]
.Reinforced concrete special momentframes are used as part of seismic force-resisting systems in buildings that aredesigned to resist earthquakes. Beams andcolumns in moment frames are proportionedand detailed to resist flexural, axial, andshearing actions that result as a buildingsways through multiple displacement cyclesduring strong earthquake ground shaking.Special proportioning and detailingrequirements result in a frame capable of resisting strong earthquake shaking withoutsignificant loss of stiffness or strength.These moment-resisting frames are called“Special Moment Frames” because of theseadditional requirements, which improve theseismic resistance in comparison with lessstringently detailed Intermediate andOrdinary Moment Frames
[2]
.The design requirements for specialmoment frames are presented in theAmerican Concrete Institute (ACI)Committee 318 Building CodeRequirements for Structural Concrete (ACI-318). The special requirements relate toinspection, materials, framing members(beams, columns), and construction procedures. In addition, requirements pertainto diaphragms and framing members notdesignated as part of the seismic force-resisting system. The numerous interrelatedrequirements are covered in several sectionsof ACI 318, not necessarily arranged in alogical sequence, making their applicationchallenging for all but the most experienceddesigners
[2]
.A large number of reinforcedconcrete multistoreyed frame buildings wereheavily damaged and many of themcollapsed completely in Bhuj earthquake of 2001 in the towns of Kachchh District(Bhuj, Bhachao, Anjar, Gandhidham andRapar) and other district towns includingSurat and Ahmedabad. In Ahmedabad alonesituated at more than 250 kilometers awayfrom the Epicenter of the earthquake, 69 buildings collapsed killing about 700 persons. Earlier, in the earthquake at Kobe(Japan 1995) large numbers of multistoreyedRC frame buildings of previous 1981 code based design were severely damaged due tovarious deficiencies
[3].
 Such behavior is normallyunexpected of RC frame buildings in MSK Intensity VIII and VII areas as happened inKachchh earthquake of January 26, 2001.The aim of this paper is to bring out themain contributing factors which lead to poor  performance during the earthquake and tomake recommendations which should betaken into account in designing themultistoreyed reinforced concrete buildingsso as to achieve their adequate safe behavior under future earthquakes. The IndianStandard Code IS: 1893 was suitablyupdated in 2002 so as to address the variousdesign issues brought out in the earthquake behavior of the RC Buildings
[3]
.
Seismic Resistant Design of Buildings:
Earthquake is a natural phenomenon whichis generated in the earth’s crust. Themagnitude of the seismic loads on thestructure during an earthquake depends uponthe factors like the mass of the building, thedynamic properties of the building, theintensity of ground motion and its dampingcharacteristics.Severity of ground shaking at a givenlocation during an earthquake can be minor,moderate or strong. Relatively speaking,minor shaking occurs frequently; moderateshaking occasionally and strong shakingrarely. For instance, on an average, annuallyabout 800 earthquakes of magnitude 5.0-5.9occurs in the world while the number is only
 
about 18 for magnitude range 7.0-7.9. Thus,designing and constructing a building toresist that rare earthquake shaking that maycome only once in 500 years or even once in2000 years at the chosen project site, eventhough the life of the building itself may beonly 50 or 100 years is uneconomical sinceit costs money to provide additionalearthquake safety in buildings. It wouldtherefore be appropriate to design the building for earthquake effects rather thanmaking it earthquake proof. Clearly, theformer approach can lead to a majodisaster, and the second approach is tooexpensive. Hence, the design philosophyshould lie somewhere in between these twoextremes.The engineers do not attempt to makeearthquake proof buildings
 
that will not
 
getdamaged even during
 
the rare but strongearthquake; such buildings will be
 
too robustand also too expensive. Instead, theengineering intention is to make buildingsearthquake resistant;
 
such buildings resistthe effects of ground
 
shaking, although theymay get damaged severely but
 
would notcollapse during the strong earthquake.
 
Thus,safety of people and contents is assured inearthquake-resistant buildings, and thereby adisaster 
 
is avoided. This is a major objectiveof seismic design
 
codes throughout theworld.
Equivalent Static Method as per IS-1893-2002:
The total design lateral force or design base shear along any principaldirection is given in terms of designhorizontal seismic coefficient and seismicweight of the structure. Design horizontalseismic coefficient depends on the zonefactor of the site, importance of thestructure, response reduction factor of thelateral load resisting elements and thefundamental period of the structure.Following procedure is generallyused for the equivalent static analysis:i)Determination of base shear (
 B
) of the building
W   AV  
h B
×=
 …………………..(1)
2
ah
 Z I S  A R
=
 ………….……….(2)ii)Lateral distribution of design baseshear The design base shear 
 B
thus obtained isthen distributed along the height of the building using a parabolic distributionexpression:
221
i ii Bni ii
W hQ W h
=
=
 ……...………….(3)
Equivalent Static Method as per IBC-2006:
Design of a reinforced concrete building in accordance with the equivalentstatic force procedure found in current U.S.seismic codes involves the following principal steps:1. Determination of design “earthquake”forces:Calculation of base shearscorresponding to the computed or estimatedfundamental period of vibration of thestructure. (A preliminary design of thestructure is assumed here.)•Distribution of the base shear over the height of the building.2. Analysis of the structure under the (static)lateral forces calculated in step (1), as wellas under gravity and wind loads, to obtainmember design forces and story drift ratios.The lateral load analysis, of course, can becarried out most conveniently by using acomputer program for analysis. For certainclass of structures having plan or verticalirregularities, or structure over 240 feet inheight, most building codes require dynamicanalysis to be performed. In this case,ASCE- 7-05 and IBC-2006 require that thedesign parameters including story shears,moments, drifts and deflections determinedfrom dynamic analysis to be adjusted.Where the design value for base sheaobtained from dynamic analysis (
Vt 
) is lessthan the calculated base shear (
)determined using the step 1 above, these

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