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International Relations Chris

International Relations Chris

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12/08/2010

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1
International Relations
Contents
1.
 
History
 1.1 S
tudy
 
of 
IR2.
 
The
ory
 2.1 Ep
ist
em
ology
an
d
IR
t
he
ory
 2.2 P
ositivist
The
ori
e
s
 2.2.1 Rea
lis
m2.2.2 L
ib
e
r
a
lis
m/
id
ea
lis
m/L
ib
e
r
a
l
In
t
e
r
na
tio
na
lis
m2.2.3 Ne
olib
e
r
a
lis
m2.2.4 Re
gi
me The
ory
 2.3 P
ost-
p
ositivist
/
r
e
fl
ec
tivist
 
t
he
ori
e
s
 2.3.1
 
C
riti
ca
l
The
oryM
a
rxis
m2.3.2
 
In
t
e
r
na
tio
na
l
 
so
c
i
e
ty
 
t
he
ory
(
t
he En
glis
h
s
ch
ool)
 2.3.3
 
S
o
c
i
a
l
C
o
n
stru
c
tivis
m2.4 Lea
d
e
rs
h
i
p The
ori
e
s
 2.4.1 In
t
e
r
e
st
G
rou
p pe
rs
pec
tiv
e2.4.2 S
tr
a
t
e
gi
c Pe
rs
pec
tiv
e3.
 
P
oststru
c
tur
a
list
 
t
he
ori
e
s
 4.
 
4. C
o
ncep
ts
 
i
n
i
n
t
e
r
na
tio
na
l
 
r
e
l
a
tio
n
s
 4.1 C
o
nj
u
nc
tur
e4.2 S
yst
em
i
c
l
e
v
e
l
c
o
ncep
ts
 4.2.1 P
ow
e
r
 4.2.2 P
ol
a
rity
 4.2.3 In
t
e
rd
epen
d
ence4.2.4 Depen
d
enc
y
 4.2.5 S
yst
em
i
c
tools
 
of 
 
i
n
t
e
r
na
tio
na
l
 
r
e
l
a
tio
n
s
 5.
 
5. Un
it-l
e
v
e
l
c
o
ncep
ts
 
i
n
i
n
t
e
r
na
tio
na
l
 
r
e
l
a
tio
n
s
 5.1 Re
gi
me
ty
pe5.2 Re
visio
n
is
m/S
t
a
tus
q
uo
 5.3 Re
ligio
n6.
 
6. In
dividu
a
l
 
or
 
sub-u
n
it
 
l
e
v
e
l
c
o
ncep
ts
 7.
 
7. In
stitutio
n
s
 
i
n
i
n
t
e
r
na
tio
na
l
 
r
e
l
a
tio
n
s
 7.1 Un
it
e
d
Na
tio
n
s
 7.2 Ec
o
n
o
m
i
c
i
n
stitutio
n
s
 7.3 In
t
e
r
na
tio
na
l
 
l
e
g
a
l
 
bodi
e
s
 1.
 
Hu
man
rig
h
ts
 2.
 
7.3.2 Le
g
a
l
 7.4 Re
gio
na
l
 
s
ec
urity
a
rr
an
g
emen
ts
 
 
2
International relations (IR)
(
o
cca
sio
na
lly
 
r
e
e
rr
e
d
 
to
a
s
In
t
e
r
na
tio
na
l
S
tudi
e
s
(IS
))
[1]
is
 
t
he
study
 
of 
 
r
e
l
a
tio
n
s
h
i
p
s
 
b
e
tw
een c
ou
n
tri
e
s,
 
i
nc
ludi
n
g
 
t
he
rol
e
s
 
of 
 
st
a
t
e
s,
 
i
n
t
e
r-gov
e
r
nmen
t
a
l
 
org
an
iz
a
tio
n
s
(IGO
s),
 
i
n
t
e
r
na
tio
na
l
n
o
n
gov
e
r
nmen
t
a
l
 
org
an
iz
a
tio
n
s
(INGO
s),
n
o
n
-gov
e
r
nmen
t
a
l
 
org
an
iz
a
tio
n
s
(NGO
s)
an
d
m
ulti
na
tio
na
l
c
or
p
or
a
tio
n
s
(
M
NC
s)
. I
t
 
is
 
bot
h an aca
d
em
i
c an
d
p
ubli
c p
oli
c
y
 
fi
e
ld,
an
d
can
b
e e
it
he
r
p
ositiv
e
or
n
or
ma
tiv
e a
s
 
it
 
bot
h
s
eek
s
 
to
ana
lyz
e a
s
 
w
e
ll
a
s
 
for
m
ul
a
t
e
t
he
for
e
ig
n p
oli
c
y
 
of 
pa
rti
c
ul
a
r
 
st
a
t
e
s
. I
t
 
is
 
oft
en c
o
n
sid
e
r
e
d
a
br
anch
of 
p
oliti
ca
l
 
s
c
i
ence (e
s
pec
i
a
lly
a
ft
e
r
 1988 UNESCO n
o
menc
l
a
tur
e
),
 
but
an
i
mp
ort
an
t
 
s
ec
tor
 
of 
aca
d
em
i
a p
r
e
e
r
 
to
 
tr
ea
t
 
it
a
s
an
i
n
t
e
rdis
c
i
p
li
na
ry
 
fi
e
ld
 
of 
 
study
.Recen
t
chan
g
e
s
 
i
n
world
p
oliti
c
s
a
r
e
r
en
d
e
ri
n
g
na
tio
n
-b
a
s
e
d
 
busi
ne
ss
an
d
p
ubli
c p
oli
c
i
e
s
 
obsol
e
t
e. The
i
n
t
e
r
ac
tio
n
s
 
of 
 
glob
a
l
ec
o
n
o
m
i
e
s
an
d
p
oliti
c
s,
c
ou
p
l
e
d
 
wit
h ec
ologi
ca
l
c
o
nce
r
n
s
 
for
 
t
hep
l
ane
t,
ha
v
e
giv
en
ris
e
to
ne
w
e
du
ca
tio
na
l
nee
ds
 
t
ha
t
a
r
e
i
n
t
e
r
na
tio
na
l
 
i
n
s
c
o
pe.Apa
rt
 
fro
m p
oliti
ca
l
 
s
c
i
ence
,
IR
dr
a
ws
 
u
p
o
n
su
ch
div
e
rs
e
fi
e
lds
a
s
ec
o
n
o
m
i
c
s,
h
istory,
 
i
n
t
e
r
na
tio
na
l
 
l
a
w,
ph
iloso
ph
y,
 
g
e
ogr
aph
y,
 
so
c
i
a
l
 
wor
k
,
 
so
c
iology,
an
t
h
ro
p
ology,
p
sy
ch
ology,
 
wo
men'
s
 
studi
e
s
/
g
en
d
e
r
 
studi
e
s,
q
u
ee
r
 
studi
e
s
an
d
c
ultur
a
l
 
studi
e
s
/ c
ulturology
. I
t
 
i
n
volv
e
s
a
div
e
rs
e
r
an
g
e
of 
 
issu
e
s
 
i
nc
ludi
n
g
 
but
n
ot
 
li
m
it
e
d
 
to:
 
glob
a
liz
a
tio
n
,
 
st
a
t
e
sov
e
r
e
ig
n
ty,
ec
ologi
ca
l
 
sust
a
i
na
bility,
n
u
c
l
ea
r
 p
rolif 
e
r
a
tio
n
,
na
tio
na
lis
m
,
ec
o
n
o
m
i
c
d
e
v
e
lo
pmen
t,
 
glob
a
l
 
fi
nance
,
 
t
e
rroris
m
,
 
org
an
iz
e
d
c
ri
me
,
h
u
man
s
ec
urity,
 
for
e
ig
n
i
n
t
e
rv
en
tio
n
is
m an
d
h
u
man
rig
h
ts
.
H
istory
The h
istory
 
of 
 
i
n
t
e
r
na
tio
na
l
 
r
e
l
a
tio
n
s
 
is
 
oft
en
tr
ace
d
 
b
ack
to
 
t
he Peace
of 
We
st
pha
li
a
of 
1648
,
 
w
he
r
e
t
he m
od
e
r
n
st
a
t
e
syst
em
w
a
s
 
d
e
v
e
lo
pe
d
. P
rior
 
to
 
t
h
is,
 
t
he E
uro
pean me
di
e
v
a
l
 
org
an
iz
a
tio
n
of 
 p
oliti
ca
l
a
ut
h
ority
 
w
a
s
 
b
a
s
e
d
 
o
n a
v
a
gu
e
ly
h
i
e
r
a
r
ch
i
ca
l
 
r
e
ligious
 
ord
e
r
. We
st
pha
li
a
i
n
stitut
e
d
 
t
he
l
e
g
a
l
 c
o
ncep
t
 
of 
 
sov
e
r
e
ig
n
ty,
 
w
h
i
ch e
ss
en
ti
a
lly
mean
t
 
t
ha
t
 
rul
e
rs,
 
or
 
t
he
l
e
giti
ma
t
e
sov
e
r
e
ig
n
s,
ha
d
n
o
 
i
n
t
e
r
na
l
eq
u
a
ls
 
wit
h
i
n a
d
e
fi
ne
d
 
t
e
rritory
an
d
n
o
e
xt
e
r
na
l
 
su
pe
riors
a
s
 
t
he
ulti
ma
t
e a
ut
h
ority
 
wit
h
i
n
t
he
t
e
rritory
'
s
 
sov
e
r
e
ig
n
bord
e
rs
. A
si
mp
l
e
w
a
y
 
to
 
vi
e
w
 
t
h
is
 
is
 
t
ha
t
 
sov
e
r
e
ig
n
ty
 
s
a
ys,
"I'm n
ot
a
llow
e
d
 
to
 
t
e
ll
 
you
 
w
ha
t
 
to
 
do
an
d
 
you
a
r
e n
ot
a
llow
e
d
 
to
 
t
e
ll
me
w
ha
t
 
to
 
do
." C
l
a
ssi
ca
l
G
r
eek an
d
R
o
mana
ut
h
ority
a
t
 
ti
me
s
 
r
e
s
em
bl
e
d
 
t
he We
st
pha
li
an
syst
em
,
 
but
 
bot
h
l
acke
d
 
t
he n
otio
n
of 
 
sov
e
r
e
ig
n
ty
.We
st
pha
li
a enc
our
a
g
e
d
 
t
he
ris
e
of 
 
t
he
i
n
d
epen
d
en
t
na
tio
n
-st
a
t
e
,
 
t
he
i
n
stitutio
na
liz
a
tio
n
of 
 
di
p
lo
mac
y
an
d
a
r
m
i
e
s
. Th
is
pa
rti
c
ul
a
r
E
uro
pean
syst
em
w
a
s
e
x
p
ort
e
d
 
to
 
t
he Ame
ri
ca
s,
A
fri
ca
,
an
d
 A
si
a
vi
a c
olo
n
i
a
lis
m an
d
 
t
he "
st
an
d
a
rds
 
of 
c
iviliz
a
tio
n". The c
o
n
t
emp
or
a
ry
 
i
n
t
e
r
na
tio
na
l
 
syst
em
w
a
s
 
fi
na
lly
e
st
a
blis
he
d
 
t
h
roug
h
d
ec
olo
n
iz
a
tio
n
duri
n
g
 
t
he C
old
Wa
r
.
How
e
v
e
r,
 
t
h
is
 
is
 
so
me
w
ha
t
 
ov
e
r-si
mp
lifi
e
d
. Wh
il
e
t
he na
tio
n
-st
a
t
e
syst
em
is
c
o
n
sid
e
r
e
d
"m
od
e
r
n"
,
man
y
 
st
a
t
e
s
ha
v
e n
ot
 
i
nc
or
p
or
a
t
e
d
 
t
he
syst
em an
d
a
r
e
t
e
r
me
d
"p
r
e
-
m
od
e
r
n".F
urt
he
r,
a han
dful
 
of 
 
st
a
t
e
s
ha
v
e m
ov
e
d
 
b
e
yo
n
d
 
t
he na
tio
n
-st
a
t
e
syst
em an
d
can
b
ec
o
n
sid
e
r
e
d
"p
ost-
m
od
e
r
n". The a
bility
 
of 
c
o
n
t
emp
or
a
ry
IR
dis
c
ours
e
to
e
x
p
l
a
i
n
t
he
r
e
l
a
tio
n
s
 
of 
 
t
he
s
e
diff 
e
r
en
t
 
ty
pe
s
 
of 
 
st
a
t
e
s
 
is
 
dis
p
ut
e
d
. "Le
v
e
ls
 
of 
ana
lysis
"
is
a
w
a
y
 
of 
 
loo
k
i
n
g
a
t
 
t
he
i
n
t
e
r
na
tio
na
l
 
syst
em
,
 
w
h
i
ch
i
nc
lud
e
s
 
t
he
i
n
dividu
a
l
 
l
e
v
e
l,
 
t
he
do
me
sti
c na
tio
n
-st
a
t
e a
s
a
u
n
it,
 
t
he
i
n
t
e
r
na
tio
na
l
 
l
e
v
e
l
 
of 
 
tr
an
s
na
tio
na
l
an
d
 
i
n
t
e
rgov
e
r
nmen
t
a
l
a
ff 
a
irs,
an
d
 
t
he
glob
a
l
 
l
e
v
e
l
.Wha
t
 
is
e
x
p
li
c
itly
 
r
ec
og
n
iz
e
d
a
s
In
t
e
r
na
tio
na
l
Re
l
a
tio
n
s
 
t
he
ory
 
w
a
s
n
ot
 
d
e
v
e
lo
pe
d
 
u
n
til
a
ft
e
r
 W
orld
Wa
r
I
,
an
d
 
is
 
d
ea
lt
 
wit
h
i
n m
or
e
d
e
t
a
il
 
b
e
low
. IR
t
he
ory,
h
ow
e
v
e
r,
ha
s
a
lo
n
g
 
tr
a
ditio
n
of 
 
dr
a
wi
n
g
 
o
n
t
he
wor
k
of 
 
ot
he
r
 
so
c
i
a
l
 
s
c
i
ence
s
. The
us
e
of 
cap
it
a
liz
a
tio
n
s
 
of 
 
t
he "I" an
d
"R"
i
nIn
t
e
r
na
tio
na
l
Re
l
a
tio
n
s
a
i
m
s
 
to
 
disti
n
guis
h
t
he aca
d
em
i
c
dis
c
i
p
li
ne
of 
In
t
e
r
na
tio
na
l
Re
l
a
tio
n
s
 
fro
m
t
hephen
o
mena
of 
 
i
n
t
e
r
na
tio
na
l
 
r
e
l
a
tio
n
s
.
M
an
y
c
it
e Th
u
c
ydid
e
s
'
History of the Peloponnesian War 
a
s
 
t
he
i
n
s
p
ir
a
tio
n
for
 
r
ea
list
 
t
he
ory,
 
wit
h
Hobb
e
s
'
Leviathan
an
d
 
M
ach
i
a
v
e
lli
'
s
 
The Prince
p
rovidi
n
g
 
furt
he
r
e
l
a
bor
a
tio
n.S
i
m
il
a
rly,
 
lib
e
r
a
lis
m
dr
a
ws
 
u
p
o
n
t
he
wor
k
of 
Kan
t
an
d
R
ouss
ea
u,
 
wit
h
t
he
wor
k
of 
 
t
he
for
me
r
 
oft
en
b
e
i
n
g
c
it
e
d
a
s
 
t
he
first
e
l
a
bor
a
tio
n
of 
 
d
em
o
c
r
a
ti
c peace
t
he
ory
. Th
oug
h c
o
n
t
emp
or
a
ry
h
u
man
rig
h
ts
 
is
c
o
n
sid
e
r
a
bly
 
diff 
e
r
en
t
 
t
han
t
he
ty
pe
of 
 
rig
h
ts
en
visio
ne
d
 
u
n
d
e
r
na
tur
a
l
 
l
a
w,
F
r
anc
is
c
o
 
d
eV
itori
a
,
 
Hugo
G
rotius
an
d
J
o
hn L
o
cke
off 
e
r
e
d
 
t
he
first
acc
ou
n
ts
 
of 
 
u
n
iv
e
rs
a
l
en
titl
emen
t
 
to
ce
rt
a
i
n
rig
h
ts
 
o
n
t
he
b
a
sis
 
of 
c
o
mm
o
n h
u
man
ity
. In
t
he
tw
en
ti
e
t
h cen
tury,
 
i
n a
dditio
n
to
c
o
n
t
emp
or
a
ry
 
t
he
ori
e
s
 
of 
 
lib
e
r
a
l
 
i
n
t
e
r
na
tio
na
lis
m
,
 
M
a
rxis
m ha
s
 
b
een a
fou
n
d
a
tio
n
of 
 
i
n
t
e
r
na
tio
na
l
 
r
e
l
a
tio
n
s
.
 
3

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