Malaysian Maritime Academy Correspondence Course Cargowork
These covers the whole range from raw basematerials to metal articles e.g. steel productsto scrap metal. All steel products are liable toshift at sea and need careful stowage, notonly to prevent any movement, but also toavoid seriously damaging the ship.Rust will seriously affect the value of steelproducts and every effort should thus bemade to avoid its occurrence.
Any two or more cargo joined together is saidto be unitised - strapping together, pre-slinging, palletisation, containerization, etc.Although unitisation may increase costs tosome extent (extra packaging cost), itenhances cargo handling operations, reducepilferages simplify tallying, reduce the number of people per gang. In another words itcontributes greatly to a faster turn aroundtime for the ship. Example of unitised cargo isof soft drinks packed on pallet.
Containers are basically just a box in whichcargoes are placed and the box itself istransported. Majority of general purposecontainers are boxes constructed with wallsof aluminium or thin steel sheeting,corrugated to provide strength and rigidity,reinforced corner posts with double watertightdoors at one end. Used to carry various typesof cargo e.g. tobacco, electronic components,clothing etc.
These are mainly concerned with the carriageof fruits and vegetables and are seasonal,relying on the harvesting of crops around theworld. Other reefer cargoes include frozenfruit juices, flowers and bulbs, dairy products,meat, poultry and fish, pharmaceuticals, x-rayfilms etc. They are handled either as a breakbulk, in pallets or in containers. They requirescrupulously clean and odorless cargocompartments to avoid contamination and thecarriage temperature is absolutely critical.
Sea borne liquids range from drums of products such as bitumen capable of carriagein conventional tween deck ships, to parcels of edible oils transported in specially coated andheated tanks and to huge homogenous cargoof crude mineral oil carried by VLCC’s.Most of these products are inflammable with alow flash point and many are dangerous inother ways, either emitting toxic gases or possessing corrosive qualities or both.
Consists mainly of liquefied petroleum gas -LPG and liquefied natural gas - LNG. LPGconsists mainly of propane and butane and arecarried either under pressure at ambienttemperature, fully refrigerated (-30
C) or semi refrigerated under a combination of pressure and reduced temperature. Any gasthat vaporises during handling and carriage willbe reliquefied and circulated back to the tanks.LNG is mainly ethane with propane and butanemaking up the balance. It is carried at or near its boiling point temperature of - 164
C atatmospheric pressure. One of the particular features of LNG is that cargo boil off is used asfuel by the ship. However, given the high valueof natural gas, the use of boil off for suchpurpose is becoming uneconomic and effortsare being made to reduce the daily rate of boiloff to below 0.25% of cargo quantity.
Under the auspices of IMO, a DangerousGoods Code has evolved encompassingrecommendations as to stowage, carriage,packaging, documentation and labeling of mostdangerous commodities. Bulk carriers are likelyto be affected by the carriage by onehomogenous dangerous cargo at a time e.g.sulphur in bulk or a chemical tanker is likely tocarry several lots of dangerous bulk liquids atany one time.However, it is the general cargo ships or container ships, which can be expected tocarry several classes of dangerous goods atany one time, the relative effect of which in
ALAM/July 2002 Page